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Sociolinguistics Essay Essay Example for Free
Sociolinguistics Essay EssayINTRODUCTIONThe question paper deals with ad hominem advertise manpowerts presented via the medium of the earnings. This resistant of advertising is a relatively new genre beca recitation the medium of the Internet is non a rattling(prenominal) old pheno body of work forceon therefore it is nearly unseekd. The adjacent depth psychology of ad hominemized advertise manpowerts come away of the closets to be quite inte abate workforceting as today personalized advertise custodyts represent whiz of the really popular and often utilize means providing scuttle to meet new friends and potential life softenners. Ads decl ar a rich source of written verbiage, as soundly as search material. They unremarkably facilitate in sending right messages to people of reversion sexual activity identities on dating sack uppage. The near important ending of the seek paper is to focus on the features of online dating from the point of view of sex ual activity differences. It tries to find out whether and how the differences amid hands and wo hands define the no menclature of personal advertisements. It wants to explore whether nigh command sex stereotypes too occur in this new mental of personal advertisement.II.RESEARCH PROBLEMSIn our society it is believed that men and women chide as they belonged to two antithetic entities. Since personal advertisements be written by both sexes, the research paper tries to explore how address relates to sexuality and how pigeonhole assumptions and beliefs are reflected in the text of online personal advertisements. The paper focuses on how men and women characterise themselves, as s salubrious up as their potential coadjutors, what kind of expressions they use for this answer. From the viewpoint of gender stereotypes, the paper go out concentrate on the issues of talkativeness and a hedges usage as it is presupposed that women will be much talkative and will use hedges much much. It is also presupposed that men will furiousnesse achiever in their self comment and manner in their retainer description. Women arepresupposed to raise not bad(p)er furiousness on their air as well as on functionners success.1III.THEORETICAL PART1. Advertisement in general1.1.Role of advertisement Nowadays, advertisement is a usual part of everyday life. Wherever we are, ads are always adjoin us. We mint see it everywhere on TV, radio, newspapers, magazines, billboards, means of transport, the Internet or in familiar places. Its goal is to attract people s vigilance and give information intimately some concrete proceeds or service. The ultimate aim of ads is to persuade people to buy what is advertised. Information provided by the creators of the advertisement has a strong impact on the addressees, either negative or positive. Advertisement is very often rejected and invokes passionate discussions. However, thanks to it, people or companies can quickl y inform roughly their products or serve in a very easy way.1.2.Language of advertisement A great variety of advertisements for different subjects emerges on the market, ads for e.g. products, services, ideas or images of organizations, charities, companies, individuals. Language of present advertisements is special. It tries to attract possible customers or addressees and focuses on their financial aid and consciousness to influence them positively. Ads use fictions, record play, compressed storytelling, stylized acting, photography, railway cartoons, puns, and rhythms in ways which are often memor competent, enjoyable and amusing. The word and details of ads often come to peoples minds to a greater extent readily than those of novels and poems and plays, and they are often recalled with more laughter and enthusiasm (Cook, 2003, p. 3).It can be said that linguistic process used in advertisements plays a very important role. It is obvious that the more extraordinary, peculiar, interesting and original the advertisement is, the greater chance it has to draw addresseesattention and to go deeply into their subconscious.2. Personal advertisement2.1. The role of the advertisement As any kind of advertisement, personal ads are part of everyday life. They can be seen in all media mainly on the Internet and print media. Personal advertisements serve for the purpose of communication between people. The primary aim is to catch attention of an ideal partner. The 2options for creating personal ads are limited as their writers depend on the space persistd and words expressing their intention. 2.2. Language of personal advertisement As it was said, diction of advertisement is very specific, especially language of personal advertisements. Communication adaptation theory (CAT) (Burgoon, Stern, Dillman, 1995 Giles, Coupland, Coupland, 1991) holds that individuals vary their language plectrons within interactions, depending on their kind goals. Thus, speakers may choose to emphasize (or deemphasize) particular aspects of their identities as a way of aligning with (or distancing from) interaction partners (http//pdfcast.org/pdf/enacting-gender-identity-in-written-discourse-responding-to-gender-role-bidding-in-personal-ads, p.401,cited 30.11.2010) As Winn and robin redbreast (ibid, cited 30.11.2010) continue, the writers of the personal ads regulate their self- presentations by means of language choice. On the an early(a)(prenominal) hand, prescribed requirements of e.g. space can dupe an influence on the way of writers presentation. The authors of personal ads must be brief when they portray themselves.However, they also have to use such language means which help the writers to present instalments of their identities that are supposed to be most important to finding partners. Therefore it is obvious that personal ads writers will often converge with, or match, the expression patterns of their interlocutors (ibid, p. 401, cited 30.11.20 10). As the authors of article printed in a magazine Journal of language a social psychology point out, writers of personal ads construct their text and use such a vocabulary to be in harmony with what is preferred by their readers individuals are seen to adapt their language (ibid, p. 401, cited 30.11.2010).3. Gender differencesGender necessitate appears to be not a very old discipline. It was introduced in the second half of the last light speed and explores the field of differences between men and women. It is generally assumed that women differ from men in many attributes. Nowadays, comments corresponding muliebrity will never understand man and vice versa nearly become a proverb. Of course, differences between women and men are of various types until now for the purpose of this research paper just difference concerning language use will be discussed. A theory dealing with issues of gender differences in using language is called sociolinguistic. Its major topic is the c onnection between the structures, vocabularies, and ways 3of using particular languages and the social roles of the men and women who speak these languages (p. 315).3.1. Gender and language Nowadays, linguists still have the same opinion that men and women differ in the language use. The distinction is partly caused by biological differences, e.g. a constitution of human brain depends on gender however the fact is that women and men are also psychologically different, e.g. women are more touch with making connections they seek involvement and focus on the interdependencies between people. Men are more touch with autonomy and detachment they seek independence and focus on hierarchical relationship ( Boe qtd. In Holmes, 1995, p. 7).harmonize to Coates ( 1993), usually, emotiveness is a typical feature of women, while rational thinking is characteristic attribute of men. Men adjust emphasis on success, efficiency, power and ability, whereas women regard as the most important relatio nship, feelings, family, and confidence. We can say, all these areas allude womens and men s acting, their decision making, thinking, and their expressing of their emotions, needs and opinions. The distinctions menti unrivalledd can be reflected also in personal advertisements.3.2. Cultural stereotypes and language Not only history and culture of the society but also gender differences influence the existence of certain persistent stereotypes in the society. There are some linguistic stereotypesconcerning communicative competence of men and women based on gender differences that are believed by almost each share of our society. According to Coates ( ibid ), each of us are familiar with linguistic stereotypes, like that women talk more than men, that women gossiper, that men swear more than women, that women are more polite and so on ( Coates, 1993, p. 107). Coates mentions also other language areas in which women are distinct from men, which are tag motions, hedges, commands a nd directives, taboo language, compliments, topic and topic development, nominal versus informal language, and minimal responses ( Coates, 1993, p. 114).43.2.1. Talkativeness As for talkativeness, there is a widespread belief in our society that women talk more than men ( Coates, 1993, p. 115). In spoken language Coates calls this stereotype verbosity (Coates, 1993, p 114). Persistence of this stereotype is closely connected with the topic discussed. In societies, it is believed that women like to talk more about trivial topics, as family cooking or personal issues, and they forfend topics that could be titled serious. The slimness of topics is usually connected with abundant usage of words. Coates points out another reason for persistence of this belief that is different prospects of male and female speakers while men have the right to talk, women are expected to remain silent. thusly talking at any length can be viewed as talkativeness ( Coates, 1993, p. 115). However it sho uld be emphasized that no research has proved this general belief (Coates, 1993).3.2.2. Markers of flicker, un sure thing As Coates (1993) says, womens speech is often viewed as tentative. While men and women telling the same, women are supposed to use more features of hesitation like comment clauses, hedges, interjections, and pauses than men. According to Coates, hedges are linguistic forms such as I think, I m sure, you know, sort of and perhaps, maybe which express the speakers certainty or uncertainty about the proposition under discussion ( Coates, 1993, p. 116). The more frequent use of hedges can be a gull of possible women s markers of hesitation based on some stereotypes again as show of certainty or confidence duringconversation could be viewed as less feminine. This stereotype about women s hesitation for the purpose to be feminine correlates also with another component of conversation, tag questions.3.2.3 Asking questions, tag questions Concerning the question usage during a discussion, it is kn give that women often ask questions to keep conversation in process. As Holmes says, they usually ask supportive distilations (Holmes, 1995, p. 43) to manifest interest and get deeper into a topic. The author continues and points out While women elicit more questions in private conversations, men tend to ask more queries in formal and public contexts (Holmes, 1995, p 39). The reason why men use more questions in public places could be that they incline to be dominant in public as they are 5generally more predatory than women. Women differ from men also in the frequency of using tag questions. Preisler claims that women use tag questions more often than men ( Preisler qtd. in Coates, 1993, p. 119).3.2.4. Topics of conversations As it was already mentioned, certain topics that are called trivial , such as relationships, family etc., are often applied to women and topics considered to be serious, such as politics, cars, technology, etc. are related to me ns conversation. According to Coates (1993), for women an conversation serves for the purpose to share problems, consolidate relationships, gain experience or to offer support. On the other hand, for men an conversation means a source of information, giving advice and presenting knowledge. This different expectation very often leads to miscommunication between men and women. The linguistic differences between men and women can be stand for also in personal advertisement. The style of personal ads reflects womens desires and ideas about men as well as mens wishes and needs concerning the opposite sex.6IV.PRACTICAL PARTThe practical part of the paper research will focus on the digest of womens and mens advertisements, gender differences from the perspective of self- and partner-description, using hedges and talkativeness. 1. Methodology The sociolinguistic analysis was applied on the material of 40 personal advertisements presented on the web page www.datingdirect.co.uk that belong to the UK s largest dating services. The corpus consists of 20 womens and 20 mens advertisements that were under a sociolinguistic analysis. The personal ads were chosen randomly. The age of respondents was between 35 and 45 including. All of the respondents came from Great Britain. Texts of all advertisements that underwent the analysis can be nominate in cecal appendage 1. 2. Analysis and results2.1 Graphical arrangement of online personal advertisements The overall graphical arrangement of online personal advertisements on the web page www.datingdirect.co.uk is as follows a) prescribed items with only one choice from the list, e.g. relationship status, occupation, body type, height, hair colour, eyes, children, personality, state of matter/residence, smoking, date of birth, education, ethnicity, I live, my style, bearing, my best feature, political view, religion, romance, etc. b) prescribed items with a ternary choice from the list, e.g. entertainment, interests, sports, my taste in music, my favourite films, my pets, etc. c) prescribed partners description with a multiple choice from the list, e.g. relationship status, children, body type, personality, smoking, views on marriage, ethnicity, nationality, appearance, height, weight, hair, eyes, style, best features, education, occupation, religion, political view, interests, sports, films, income, etc. d) free-production part that is limited to level best of 2000 characters, and where respondents write more about themselves and the partners they are looking for this is the most important part of the personal advertisements as it serves as a material for the research paper sociolinguistic analysis. 7There is also misfortune to add photos on the web page. 2.2. Self description of appearance 2.2.1. Women Focusing on the description of appearance, only six women depict their appearance (ads No. 1,2,4,5,7,20). As it is obvious from Figure 1, majority of the women (5 of them) targetemphasis on their ove rall impression rather than on describing single parts of their appearance. The words that are used for that purpose are sexy (used 2 times) benignant (used one time) fit (used 2 times) pretty (used one time). Two women put emphasis on their hair. Both use the word blonde. Only one charr adverts her eyes by using the expression blue eyed. In only two ads an emphasis is put on figure, which is described with the words curvy and slim. There is only one advertisement (advertisement No.7) where a char depicts all categories which are mentioned above. I am a pretty blue eyed blonde, slim broadly considered, women do not put great emphasis on describing their own appearance.Majority of the women, that is 13 of them, do not mention their appearance at all. Although we predicted that the appearance is considered to be authoritative for women to attract men s attention, this prediction is not proved. 2.2.2. Men Concerning the description of their appearance, the men do not put a great emphasis on their appearance. Only four of them (ads No. 2,7,8,11) try to catch women s attention by focusing on their look. They use adjectives good looking (1 time) and handsome (1 time) for describing of their overall appearance expressions athletic (1 time) and in good shape (1 time) for their figure.As it can be obvious from the Figure 1, the men absolutely do not put an emphasis on their eyes or hair. One of the advertisements (No 9) is special concerning the way how a man describes himself. He chooses a totally different way how to attract a women s attention. He does not say whether he is handsome or ugly. The author of this advertisement probably wants to hold up mysterious as for his appearance and so to awaken a women s interest I am no George Cloony but am not a Frank Galliger either Generally considered, as we previously predicted, the men do not seem to put a greater emphasis on their appearance. 82.2.3. Differences in self description of the appearance80% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 70% 25% 10% 10% 10% 10% 0% 0% 5% women menFigure 1 Comparison of womens and mens self-description of their appearanceDealing with the appearance, Figure 1 illustrates the fact that neither womennor men put emphasis on their own appearance. 70 % of the women and 80 % of the men do not describe their look at all. This fact does not correspond with the stereotype that appearance is very important for women. 2.3. Description of partner s appearance 2.3.1. Women Concerning the description of partners appearance, only four women depict how their ideal partner should look like. They use general adjectives, such as enthralling (used in No. 17) tall (used in No.16) handsome and young-looking (both used in No 18).One womanhood puts emphasis on the partner s eyes, as she uses expression attractive eyes (No 1) , and one women is heretofore more specific in her description of an ideal partner as she writes . taller men, with nice teeth, 34/36 waist ( in No 16). An overall majority of the women (16 of them) do not mention their ideal partner s appearance at all. 2.3.2. Men At the beginning of the analysis we assumed man will emphasise the appearance of their ideal partners. However the analysis shows that only two men concentrate on the womens look. Those men who mention appearance of their partner use general adjectives such as attractive and slim I am looking for someone slim and attractive (No 12) someone thatis attractive(No 1) The rest of the men do not mention the women s look at all. It seems men prefer other qualities rather than appearance of their ideal partners. 2.3.3. Differences in partner-description of the appearance100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%90% 80% 5% 10% 10% 0% 5% 0% 0% 5% women menFigure 2 Comparison of womens and men s partner appearance descriptionFocusing on the description of the ideal partners appearance, the results are very like in both groups. 80% of the women and 90% of the men do not mention how their ideal partner should look like a t all. The stereotype that men emphasise the women s appearance is not proved. 2.4. Self- description of qualities and personality 2.4.1. Women When creating a personal advertisement, to mention peoples positive qualities seems to be a very important part. It is a useful way how to easily draw a potential partnersattention. The authors of personal ads do it by various means, however the most common is using adjectives that help to describe human qualities clearly and briefly. In the advertisements the women use a wide range of adjectives to depict their qualities and personality in the best way. More than 40 adjectives have been used for this purpose. The adjectives are divided into several groups expressing the same element of character sense of humour feminity intellect emancipation moral qualities social qualities success and others.Figure 3 Women s description of their qualities and personalityTo compare description of appearance with the description of qualities and personality , only one woman do not put emphasis on description of her personality. It is obvious this part of personal ads is significant for the women. The most important qualities are those belonging to the categories of emancipation, sense of humour and feminity. Concerning the fellowship of success that is connected with a good wrinkle, owning a car, or a folk, the women to describe themselves as being successful do not use adjectives, but other expressions, such as I work hard, own my house and car (No 10) I have a great job in advertising and media which I love. I work hard and long hours, (No 12) or I have my own home car and good job so i am looking for the same(No16). 2.4.2. Men Focusing on men s qualities and personalities, the men use approximately the same range of vocabulary as the women. They use more than 40 adjectives for the purpose to describe themselves from the point of personal qualities. Again, the adjectives are divided into several groups according to their meaning (see Appendix 3). The quest categories were possible to create sense of humour affectionate intellect moral qualities social qualities success maleness others.Figure 4 Men s description of their qualities and personalityAs it is obvious from the Figure 4, the great majority, even 75% of the men, put emphasis on their success. This category includes not only adjectives, however other expressions, such as mentioning their profession, a successful career, owning a company, a car or a house.. .i own a small yet busy painting and dec firm. .of which ive been doing for 15years now (No 4) I have a successful professional career that I enjoy (No 7) I own a plumbery and heating company (No 10) I have a couple of jobs firstly I head up an International Charity(No 11) I have a fantastic job, Im financially solvent and I own my home own, which is located within a beautiful part of Wales (No 11). The men put great emphasis not only on their success however they deform also such qualities tha t belong to the category affectionate- even 55% of the men, which is very surprising. Six of the men depict themselves as caring, five of them as romantic, or three as hearted. By contrast, personal qualities that are part of the group masculinity appear only in seven ads, which is 35%.2.4.3. Differences in self-description of the personal qualities Concerning the qualities, some considerable differences have been found between men and women (see Figure 5). As it was predicted at the beginning of the analysis, women do not stress their success at all. It seems to be unimportant forthem when they try to attract potential partners. Surprisingly, the women attach importance to the personal qualities that are part of the category emancipation. They describe themselves as adventurous, confident, hardworking, down-to-earth, independent, or even strong. The women emphasise also their feminity. It is in 12contrast with the appearance that the women consider being not so relevant for catchin g mens attention. They apparently try to attract more men by typical womens qualities as they depict themselves as feminine, warm, sensual, passionate, and caring. The women are may be persuaded that men desire to have such a women alongside. Unlike the women, the men put great emphasis on their success. For the men being successful seems to be rather significant for attracting an ideal partner.On the other hand, they do not stress their masculinity however emphasise the qualities that soften their personality. Probably, they want to approach a women s ideal of the perfect partner. As it was previously discussed in the theoretical part, the authors of personal ads write their text and use such a vocabulary to be in harmony with what is preferred by their readers. The men present elements of their identities that are supposed to be most important to finding partners. It can be an explanation why even 55% of the men stress the qualities belonging to the category affectionate.2.5. Use of hedges As it was already discussed in the theoretical part of this paper, hedges are markers of hesitation and uncertainty. Miikov offers another explanations of hedges hedging is the qualification and toning-down of utterancesin order to reduce the riskiness of what one says ( 13Wales qtd. in Topics in Linguistics, 2007, p. 76 ), or hedges are linguistic expressions that enable the speaker to avoid being too direct in her/his utterance ( Watts qtd. in Topics in Linguistics, 2007, p. 76 . Mentioned previously, according to gender stereotypes, more frequent use of hedges is typical for woman speech.Concerning frequency of hedge using, the analysis of the personal ads shows following results total tot of elements in ads 2170 Men s ads 3655 Women s ads Figure 6 Number of hedgesAs it can be seen in the Figure 6, our analysis confirmed the gender stereotype that women use hedges in their utterances more frequently than men. While the women use the hedge expressions in every single a dvertisement, eight men do not use them at all. Average number of hedges per one women s advertisement is 4,95 and per mens only 1,85. Probably, the women use them not to look very direct or confident. By showing certain degree of uncertainty (with the use of hedges), they try to express their feminine identities.2.6. Talkativeness The theoretical part of the research paper discussed cultural and linguistic stereotype concerning talkativeness. In many societies, it is taken for granted women talk more than men. The analysis of the chosen personal advertisements reveals that the number of elements per advertisement is 182,75 in the women s ads and the total number of elements is 3655, which is more than in the men s ads, where the number of elements per advertisement is 108,5 and the overall amount of elements is 2170. The longest womans advertisement has 354 elements (No 3), the shortest 76 elements (No 7). Surprisingly, the longest mans ad has 376 (No 11) elements, which is more by 22 elements than in the longest woman s ad. Theshortest mans advertisement has only 33 elements (No 20).Although the analysis finds out that the women use more words, the number of the advertisements under analysis is not sufficient to be able to prove definitely the general myth that women are more talkative than men.V.CONCLUSIONThe aim of this research paper was to analyse mens and womens personal advertisements from the sociolinguistic viewpoint and to find out whether there are considerable differences between genders. Because personal advertisements are written by both sexes, the research paper tries to explore how language relates to gender and how stereotyped assumptions and beliefs are reflected in the text of online personal advertisements. The research paper dealt with 40 personal advertisements presented via the medium of the Internet. It concentrated on the issues of talkativeness and use of hedges from the perspective of gender stereotypes. The presumptions stated at t he beginning of the analysis were proved as the research explored that the women used hedges more frequently than the men, as well as they were more talkative than the men. The supposition that men emphasise success in their self description in order to attract potential partners was also proved.However they do not stressed the appearance of their partners atall. For the women, neither success nor their appearance and appearance of their partners were important. On the other hand, the women put greater emphasis on their personal qualities. To sum it up, the men and the women differed in their language. Some of the common beliefs and myths were proved, some not. In order to attract attention of a potential partner, both sexes probably varied they language according the expectations of the opposite gender.The extent of this research paper, as well as the number of the advertisements under the analysis did not allow going deeper into language of mens and womens advertisements. It was not possible to explore and analyse all the differences. However this research paper can serve as an idea or a source for further research of personal advertisements. There is a great amount of issues which could be studied, such as gender differences in sentence structure or structure ofpersonal ads differences in using formal, informal language differences in doing grammar or spelling mistakes way of self identification differences in intended relationships way of opening and invitation for respond use of abbreviations, emoticons idiomatic and collocative expressions and others.