Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Compare and contrast two examples of brief therapy Essays

Compare and contrast two examples of brief therapy Essays Compare and contrast two examples of brief therapy Essay Compare and contrast two examples of brief therapy Essay called The Skilled Helper Model . Harmonizing to Egan ( 1990 ) this provides one manner of analyzing a patient s job to let the originative production of alternate solutions. This theoretical account is non so much a specific method of transporting out therapy as an overall theoretical account of the assisting procedure. What Egan ( 1990 ) provides is a model within which a healer or counselor can work. The theoretical account breaks down the assisting procedure into three phases. The first phase involves the healer pointing themselves within the patients universe, to get down happening out what is traveling on. Egan ( 1990 ) farther interrupt this down into three different phases. The first phase involves the healer promoting the patient to state their narrative by utilizing active hearing and oppugning to arouse all the relevant inside informations. It is here at the first phase that a clear contrast can be seen with the SFBT which does non supply much focal point on the geographic expedition of the job Egan s theoretical account is acute to prosecute with the exact dimensions of the job. The 2nd portion of the first phase involves placing any blindspots or parts of the patients narrative which have non been sufficiently investigated. As everyone has their ain peculiar beliefs and premises about the universe, the theoretical account s method encourages the patient to research th emselves from a more nonsubjective point of view. Harmonizing to Egan ( 1990 ) it will frequently be that there are many facets of themselves that people are non cognizant of. To a certain extent, this will affect soft challenging of the patient to assist them get at a wider point of view. This provides a 2nd contrast to SFBT which is non truly concerned with disputing the patient s point of view, as its focal point is more solution-orientated. The 3rd portion of the first phase is in concentrating down onto which peculiar country the patient would wish to concentrate on in their therapy. It may be that through doing a alteration in one country of their life, good effects will be seen in other countries as good. Egan ( 1990 ) negotiations of placing those concerns, concerns, or even chances, that will do a difference to the patient. This may affect make up ones minding what would hold the greatest knock-on effects, or what it is possible to accomplish at the minute. Again this 3rd p ortion of the first phase provides a contrast to SFBT as it is still centred largely on the different jobs that the patient has. The 2nd phase in the skilled assistant theoretical account, as explained by Egan ( 1990 ) , is promoting the patient to visualize a better hereafter for themselves. The purpose of this procedure is to clear up ends and to supply motive. Again, this phase is broken down into three parts. The first portion is where the healer encourages the patient to visualize a solution province to their job. The patient is helped to be originative in the manner they solve their job, non to be constrained by practicalities. The 2nd portion involves conveying in the practical facets of the end and seeking to make something that can truly be achieved. Egan ( 1990 ) besides suggests that the end should be in line with the patient s values, represent a good manner of turn toing the identified job, be possible within a period of clip and be realistic. The 3rd portion of this 2nd phase involves the healer in proving with the patient whether the motive is at that place or non. And if it is non, so ways need to be examined for happening the motive or doing other alterations to the ends. The 2nd phase of the skilled assistant theoretical account appears to come closer to SFBT as it is concentrating on the solution. In peculiar, both therapies focus on holding a vision of how things might be in the hereafter. The skilled assistant theoretical account, nevertheless, topographic points more accent on the input of the healer as a moderator for the patient, the healer in a SFBT session will merely admit the patient s pick, compliment it and travel on to turn to it. The 3rd phase of the skilled assistant theoretical account involves working out precisely how the client will acquire from the current state of affairs to the end that they have envisioned. Again, this phase is broken down into three parts. First, the patient is asked to brainstorm for schemes the accent at this phase being on thought as widely and creatively as possible. Again, the 2nd portion involves contracting these schemes down to take the most appropriate. The pick of scheme may be limited by the patient s frame of mention and so the healer is encouraged to assist the patient get as near to their end as possible. Finally in the 3rd portion, the patient is encouraged to turn the peculiar scheme that has been chosen into a concrete, bit-by-bit program. Egan ( 1990 ) explains that this is done by interrupting down the scheme into its constituent parts and so attaching a time-frame to each action. With the accent in the 3rd phase of the skilled assistant theoretical account on the building of a solution, this is possibly the closest in spirit and method to SFBT. This 3rd phase besides emphasises the importance of leting the patient to make their ain decisions with the healer merely steering the manner, a similar attack to that used in SFBT. A hunt of the psychological databases for research on the rating of the skilled assistant theoretical account reveals that little or no research specifically on this theoretical account has been carried out. This is likely because of the generalization of the theoretical account, the trouble of make up ones minding on appropriate result steps and really mensurating any results that are decided on. This so provides a farther contrast between the two types of therapy, in that SFBT has some positive grounds in the peer-reviewed literature to back up its usage, while the skilled assistant theoretical account largely because of its nature has little. Some other, more general contrasts can be drawn between the two types of therapy. In SFBT, the healer is most interested in making a vision for the hereafter and believes that the seeds of this vision are contained in the patient s current behavior. These can be brought out by concentrating on the behavior and what the patient feels is required in order to make their vision. In this manner SFBT is highly forward looking, with the healer passing about all the reins to the client. Crucially, the healer tends to concentrate on conveying out the positive facets that the patient is attesting in any possible manner. In contrast, the healer in the skilled assistant theoretical account looks rearward every bit good as forward, and provides a much greater grade of counsel to the patient through the procedure. Egan ( 2002 ) is acute to indicate out that the skilled assistant theoretical account is merely one manner of looking at the procedure and the phases of the therapy should be used flexib ly and in this sense it is a higher degree and less specific signifier of therapy than SFBT it is possibly better seen with the accent on model instead than the more specific techniques that are contained within SFBT. Mentions Cockburn, J. T. , Thomas, F. N. , Cockburn, O. J. ( 1997 ) . Solution-focused therapy and psychosocial accommodation to orthopedic rehabilitation in a work indurating plan. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 7 ( 2 ) , 97-106. de Shazer, S. ( 1985 ) . Keys to Solutions in Brief Therapy. New York: Norton de Shazer, S. ( 1988 ) Hints: Investigating Solutions in Brief Therapy. New York: Norton. Egan, G. ( 1990 ) The Skilled Helper: a Systematic Approach to Effective Helping, 4th edition, Monterey, CA, Brooks/Cole Egan, G. ( 2002 ) The Skilled Helper: a problem-management and chance development attack to assisting, 7Thursdayedition, Brooks/Cole: Pacific Grove, CA. Gingerich, W. J. Eisengart, S. ( 2000 ) Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: A Review of the Outcome Research, Family Process, 39 ( 4 ) 477 Iveson, C. ( 2002 ) Solution-focused brief therapy. Progresss in Psychiatric Treatment vol. 8, pp. 149–157 Lindforss, L. , Magnusson, D. ( 1997 ) Solution focussed therapy in prison. Contemporary Family Therapy 19, 89-103 Zimmerman, T. S. , Jacobsen, R. B. , MacIntyre, M. , Watson, C. ( 1996 ) . Solution focused rearing groups: An empirical survey. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 15 ( 4 ) , 12-25.

Monday, February 24, 2020

Enhancing E-Learning Experience Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

Enhancing E-Learning Experience - Assignment Example In terms of Prensky’s transitional imperatives referred above, games and simulations, do offer all the significant features required in the 21st-century learning paradigms. As Ardell and Andresen point out, games and simulation sparkle interest through interesting storytelling narratives, thereby enhancing engagement; but to be effective, learning content in games have to be relevant and woven around strong context. Exploring the effectiveness of learning content, Schank (1997) opines, that people remember situations that turn out to be different from what they expected. Failing in interesting ways, Schank suggests, should be a goal of any learning intent. And, where else, then through games and simulations, can a facilitator embed failure-modes in learning?  The research problem embodies the research study, both in its scope and depth, and unambiguously defined (Fouche, 2005).   In this study, the research problem is centered on studying the impact of games and simulation in e-learning, in terms of effectiveness in learning content, and engagement in learning delivery. Klaus Mogensen (2009) states that the future of learning would revolve around: improved technology, virtual reality, augmented reality, and future competencies. The technologies would include intelligence (smart), interactivity, individualization, and inclusion. Virtual classrooms, second life, situational encyclopedias, Wikipedia, open source and YouTube would become the order of the day. The scope of this dissertation would include the impact of such emerging technologies on e-learning and their adaptation to games and simulation.

Friday, February 7, 2020

Steve Jobs Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Steve Jobs - Term Paper Example Background - experience, past and present - impact on the current organization Born in the year 1955, Steve Jobs was in Homestead school, in California. He often visited companies like Hewlett-Packard, after his lectures. Jobs first assignment was at Atari, as a technician where he created a circuit board for a game. Finally Wayne, Wozniak and Jobs founded Apple computers and used to sell it in the garage of Jobs’ parents in the year 1971. As a company Apple started its existence in 1976 with much of funding from investors. (Steve Jobs Leadership Case Study) Apple was expanded over the years until it became huge. It was Jobs who observed the commercial potentials from mouse driven GUI belonging to Xerox PARC and this inspired the creation of Apple Lisa. Based on this a year later, Macintosh was invented in 1984. Due to some incidents of dispute Jobs retired from Apple in 1985, and in that year only formed NeXT Inc. (Steve Jobs Leadership Case Study). NeXT Inc was later was abs orbed by Apple in 1996 bringing back Jobs. It was in 1997, when he once again became the CEO of Apple. Under Jobs’ supervision, the invention of i-Pod, i- Mac, i-Tunes, and subsequently i-Pad ensued. Fighting with cancer since 2003 he finally resigned from his duties as a CEO in August 2011. Finally he was elected as a chairman in Apple (Lomas). Jobs never limited himself to Apple or NeXT only. He bought Pixar, and merged with Disney, produced innumerable computer animated pictures such as â€Å"Toy Story†, â€Å"A Bug’s Life† and others (Steve Jobs Resigns as CEO of Apple) Six leadership characteristics Jobs exhibited Few traits of quality leadership that Steve jobs possessed are enumerated and analyzed below- â€Å"Look-ahead† mindset He set precise goals and had a clear and concise vision of the future. He ensured that the vision got inculcated in the minds of everyone throughout the organization. Effective leaders like him have always envisione d exactly what they want and how they are going to achieve their goals in order to get what they want. (Lomas) Jobs always focused on what Apple should do next in the future. He always invited employee’s suggestions about the future actions. His each and every week started with having a three or four hour discussion regarding the scenario they would foresee in the world in the coming days. In a statement he commented, "We are inventing the future... Come down here and make a dent in the universe" (Jobs). His unfathomable and unparalleled obsession with brightening the future with technological advancements paved the way for Apple to be the first name uttered amongst many, when it comes to everyday gadgets, be it mobiles or digital music players or PCs or even OSs. (Hyatt) Persistence - Steve Jobs epitomizes the virtue persistence and it was most exemplified through his exit from Apple. He refused to give up, and in fact, went on to start NeXT computers which would eventually be acquired by Apple Computers Inc. It would have been obvious for a common person to give up at this point and regret the loss. As a leader, one has to be prepared to encounter and conquer hindrance. It is all the more important to show this character, especially if one would like to form a

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Develop and promote positive relationships Essay Example for Free

Develop and promote positive relationships Essay The importance of good working relationships in the setting. It’s very important to have a good working relationship within a setting because it reflects and promotes a positive environment, that is not only inviting for children but for the parents also. Staffs are also approachable and children will be relaxed and confident and will feel that they are able to trust you. Parents would also find it easier to form professional relationships with staff members, this helps to make separation and transitions easier for the child and parent. It also makes discussing important information about the Childs individual needs or concerns easier. Forming good relationships with other colleagues makes the setting run smoothly, information is easily passed on. The working environment is relaxed and more enjoyable. K2 Relevant legal requirements covering the way you relate to and interact with children and young people The relevant requirements covering the way we relate to and interact with children are The United Nations Convention On The Rights Of Children 1989, this legislation ensures that children are listened to, shown respect and have the right to make choices (within reason). They must be protected from discrimination and have the right to freedom of expression. The Children’s Act 1989 brings together various pieces of legislation; it covers child protection and the responsibilities a parent must adhere to, as well as ensuring that children’s welfare is of a paramount importance. K3 Relevant legal requirements and procedures covering confidentiality and the disclosure of information. The Data Protection Act 1998 requires anyone who handles personal information to comply with a number of important principles. It also gives individuals rights over their personal information. This act covers all information held on paper or computer systems and all organizations that store personal data must register with the Data Protection Commission. The eight enforceable principles that must comply with are: †¢Fairly and lawfully processed. †¢Processed for limited purposes. †¢Adequate, relevant and not excessive. †¢Accurate. †¢Not kept longer than necessary. †¢Processed in accordance with the data subjects rights. †¢Secure. †¢Not transferred to other countries without adequate protection. To comply with these principles every school processing personal data must notify under the Act. Data Protection within the school is also checked with auditors and ofsted. Any passing on of a child’s personal information to other professionals must have written consent from the parents or main carer, or the school would be in breach of the Data Protection Act. All admission details of children leaving the school are passed on to their new schools, but historical data is kept on the school’s IT Management system. This information is stored under a secure password protected application. The different types of personal data which is held in the school are: Name and address of the child. Gender. Contact details of parents/carer including emergency telephone numbers. Development records/profiles of each child. Observations including photographic evidence on each child. Medical information. Absence/attendance records. Unique pupil number. Within the school any general information such as doctor /dentist or other professional appointments should be shared between colleagues only. We also have a medical room within the main school which contains medical records and photographs of those children who have food allergies and other serious conditions such as diabetes. Again this confidential information is only accessible by members of staff. It is also essential and important when working with children not to discuss them or their family outside your setting. No information should be passed on without parental consent, unless requested by the police or social services. The only time that you are allowed to breach confidentiality is when you are safe guarding a child or in an emergency. K4 Relevant legal requirements covering the needs of disabled children and young people and those with special educational needs. Legislation and the special needs code of practice: SEN and Disability Act 2001: Providers should make reasonable adjustments to include children with SEN e. g. provide / attend training. A written SEN policy is needed. A SENCO should be identified. Education Act 1944: Children with special needs should be educated alongside their peers. The views of parents should be recognized. Children’s handicap should be diagnosed. Disability Discrimination Act 1995. Those who provide goods and services to the public must make sure that they do not discriminate against those who have a disability, including children who may have learning or physical difficulties or long term illness. Code of Practice 1994. A five stage process to assess a child’s special needs is identified. If needed a statement is written to say how those needs will be met. Code of Practice 2001. A staged system of assessment consisting of Action and Action plus is introduced to support children whose needs may not require a statement or to contribute to the process of statementing. Education Act 1989. Children with disabilities should be educated in mainstream schools wherever possible. Health, education and social services should work together to asses a child’s needs. Children’s Act 1989. Every local authority should provide services for children with special educational needs in their local area. Early identification of special needs is important. K5 The types of information that should be treated confidentially: who you can and cannot share this information with. Who should have access to any records? Head teacher, teacher, parents/carers, Ofsted, SENCO, Social services and other professionals. 2. Where should records be stored? Records are stored in secure cabinets. In a software package. These records are on the individual teacher’s laptops which are password protected and stored in a central storage room overnight. All back up discs are also stored in secure cabinets. 3. How can records be checked for accuracy? External moderators from the Local Educational Authority check the software for accuracy and EYFS profiling. Regular meetings with current examples of tracking and profiles take place between the school and the moderators. 4. Who should be allowed to carry out observations and assessments? Teacher, Key person, SENCO and assessors. 5. Who can give permission for observations and assessments to take place? Written permission forms are signed by parents/carers at the start of the academic year for all new children attending the school, this also covers photographic observations/evidence. K6 The meaning of anti-discriminatory practice and how to integrate this into your relationships with children and other adults. It is paramount that all children and families feel that the setting is welcoming, non-threatening and that they are respected and valued. These means that all practitioners should have excellent communication skills and have the ability to listen carefully, question, understand and respond in a positive manner. Developing and building a trusted two way relationship means that you will be able to support both the family and child throughout their time in your care. The school also promotes that all individual children are given equal access to the school’s curriculum, care, moral and spiritual input, sports, arts and play opportunities. This support also includes the children being healthy, safe, enjoying and achieving and; making positive contributions to the community and society. A SEN register is held in school of all children who have been identified as having special needs. Other registers record different circumstances which may affect children’s access to the curriculum such as English as an additional language, medical needs, gifted and talented. K7 How you adapt your behaviour and communication with children to meet the needs of children in your care of different ages, genders, ethnicities, needs and abilities. It is still essential with this age group of children and young people to build on good relationships; they will be experiencing many physical changes and may feel anxious about puberty. Adults need to able to listen and be sensitive to the changes they are going through. It is vital that they have positive adult relationships, with an adult who can listen carefully, are sensitive, non-judgmental and have empathy to their individual needs. Within this age group they face far more peer pressure, wanting to fit in with their peers, feeling concerned about their outward appearances, even facing issues such as sex and experimentation with alcohol and drugs. Having a good relationship away from a family member where the children or young people can feel that they can express their own views and opinions and be respected and spoken to as an equal over important issues in their lives is paramount. Therefore they still require an adult who can give them advice, reassurance, praise and encouragement and understand their needs. K8 Strategies you can adopt to help children to feel welcome and valued in the setting. I ensure that all children in my setting are given the opportunities to play with an activity of their choice and that their views and beliefs are listened to. All children must be praised and encouraged, valued and listened to. I make them feel welcome and valued by being a positive role model and by taking an interest in what they do and say. K9 What is meant by ‘appropriate’ and ‘inappropriate behaviour when interacting with children, the policies and procedures to follow and why these are important? The school’s policies and procedures all members of staff must have a full and active part to play in protecting all pupils from harm, and at all times the children’s welfare is of paramount concern. We should all be working together to provide a caring positive and stimulating environment that promotes the social, physical and moral development of all the individual children. All members of staff are expected to develop their performance portfolios and undertake annual performance management meetings to improve on their teaching standards. The importance of following the school’s policies and procedures in appropriate behaviour are that you are contributing to the overall ethos and aims of the school and safe guarding the children. Helping to promote inclusion and acceptance of all pupils and encouraging interaction with others. Appropriate behaviour helps to develop the children’s confidence, self esteem, resilience and independence giving them a feeling of being respected and valued. Inappropriate behaviour from members of staff could result in the children lacking in confidence and lowering their self esteem. The children we feel that their views and opinions are not respected or valued. The children will become less independent and it will promote bad behaviour resulting in an environment where they will not learn or feel safe. Using unprofessional behaviour when interacting with children could become a child protection issue. Therefore it is inappropriate to be too personal or give personal information to the children in your care. K10 The importance of encouraging children to make choices for themselves and strategies to support this. By encouraging children to act in this way you are helping them to develop and make them become aware of their own needs and areas of improvement. This can be done by allowing the child to try and solve problems or necessary decisions before advice is given. Options can be given to the child to help them choose a path to take K11 The importance of involving children in decision-making and strategies you can use to do this. Within the foundation stage, the overall area is split into specific activities such as role play, home corner, writing table, messy area, quiet area and the outside area. The children can make decisions on when, how and for how long they stay at an activity. With all of the activities, there will be under pinned planned learning intentions and outcomes, some of which will have adult led or adult engagement involved. By letting the children play independently and by not interfering or leading the play, the children will develop social and emotional skills and learn to play alongside others or co-operatively. It enhances their imagination and creativity, develops communication and language skills as they work through ideas and concepts, also enabling the children to take risks and make mistakes and learn through their experiences. In involving the children in decision-making it will build on their confidence and self esteem and they will feel that their views and feelings are valued. K12 How to negotiate with children according to their age and stage of development. The first step in negotiation is to ask what dont you want to do and why. Using age related language, experience of the situation, the child and or children will in general be able to come to or reach an outcome. All children need choices it is not age specific, it depends on what level they are at in their development and understanding, for the choices that you give them. For example under 3 year olds, Its tidy up time, ask them to tidy away three things, give them a choice of what three things they are going to pick up. With children 3 years of age and over they start to learn for themselves about negotiating through their play by figuring out what the rules are, who’s going to go first, sharing toys and activities. As children get older it is important for them to be involved in negotiating and decision-making as it develops their ability to become responsible, understand consequences and prevents them from feeling excluded and powerless. Giving children choices puts the responsibility and power back into their hands. Within a school there are several ways in which you can negotiate with the children, including rewards such as stickers for those children who can undress independently for PE. For example if a few children who refuse to get changed, rewarding them with a sticker encourages them to try to undress independently or with our support. Maybe reward house points for good behaviour in following our ‘rules’ or trying really hard and working at their best ability. In the outside area we time the use of the bikes, scooter and cars so that all the children have a turn. We ensure that all the children have a choice of independent or adult led activities. When negotiating we are consistent with our actions and give the children explanations and consequences and listen to their views and feelings. K13 Strategies you can use to show children that you respect their individuality Keys to good practice: Provide activities that encourage self-expression. Provide opportunities within the foundation stage in creative development for the children to express themselves in exploring different media such as painting, drawing and modelling. The children can develop their imagination and expression in songs, music and dance, imaginative play and role play. Celebrate diversity by learning about each other’s culture, religion and beliefs. Encourage the children to listen and talk to each other in our weekly show and tell activity where the children can share a special toy, achievement or a special outing with us and their peers. Provide open-ended activities that children can put their own ‘stamp’ on. Allow the children free flow play where they can make up their own rules and games by providing different areas for role play and activities. Have independent activities based around our themed topics in which the children can expand on such as ‘buildings’. The children make 3D and 2D â€Å"Three little pigs† houses which is an adult led activity. By allowing them different mediums the children independently made houses by chalking out a town in our outside area, making houses with constructions toys, junk modelling, tents, and building their own using building bricks and homemade cement. Avoid comments that single children out as being different. Ensure that we listen and talk to the children include them in choices and decision making, acknowledge their interests and abilities by respecting their backgrounds, experiences and culture. Acknowledge children’s particular strengths and talents. Ensure that you respond to the children in different ways depending on their personalities. We share achievements or talents in special assemblies where the children can show their certificates or their talents to the rest of their peers. Show interest in things that the children enjoy doing. By knowing the children really well you can encourage them to try a new way of completing an activity such as if you know a child likes painting try to persuade them to try a different medium like a collage or junk modeling to create a picture. K14 How to balance the needs of individual children with those of the group as a whole. Within the setting daily routines of which the children have to adhere to such as registration and weekly timetable to adhere to. The school’s planning process involves grouping the children together by learning ability, style, physical and social groups and the teaching resources and levels are matched and deployed to deliver different styles of teaching to these different groups. K15 The importance of clear communication with children and specific issues that may arise in bilingual and multilingual settings All communication is a two way process and it is paramount when working with children that you listen carefully, question, understand and respond in a positive manner to what is being communicated to you. This will give the children the fundamental skills to take part in family life, school, employment and social activities. Within the setting we provide opportunities for the children to development their communication and language skills by different activities: It is important to give children clear communication and sufficient time to express themselves. †¢Showing our understanding and respect. †¢Giving children confidence and self esteem. †¢Encouraging independence. †¢Children can express their feelings and views. †¢Encourages socialising skills. †¢Gives children choice. †¢Showing we understand their needs. †¢Develops their language and communication skills. Also within our setting we have several children who are bilingual and multilingual with two or more languages these children have extra weekly support from our EAL co-ordinator. With these children we also ensure that we give clear and understandable instructions and in some cases use hand gestures or picture clues to help with their understanding. K16 Why it is important for children to ask questions, offer ideas and suggestions and how you can help them do this †¢It makes them feel part of the school. †¢They can have their say. †¢Gives the children a sense of responsibility. †¢Encourages their independence and confidence. †¢They will have a sense of belonging and pride in their school. †¢The children’s views and opinions are being listened to. †¢They will look after the new area or equipment (respect it). †¢Gives the children choices. †¢Builds relationships. †¢Develops their communication and language skills †¢They feel respected and valued. †¢They will explore and experience different activities / environments. †¢Develops their knowledge and understanding of the world. I feel that this is important to include the children in decisions about their environment, activities and learning opportunities because it gives them a sense of responsibility, independence and they will feel respected and valued. We do this by ensuring that the children have time to ask questions in a relaxed and natural way throughout their school day. K17 Why it is important to listen to children? It is important to listen to children so they know that you are interested in what they say and that you care for them. You also get to learn about the child when they are talking to you, for example if you need to help them with their language development or help them in their learning. †¢The children will feel that you are not interested in them. †¢Demonstrates that you are a role model to the children. †¢It builds the children’s self esteem and confidence. †¢It builds on good relationships with the children and other adults. †¢The children feel respected and will be happy to share suggestions and decisions. †¢Develops the children’s communication and language. †¢Helps the children to learn socialising, negotiation skills and independence. †¢The children may need to disclose a safeguarding incident. †¢It shows that we understand the children’s needs. K18 How to respond to children in a way that shows you value what they have to say and the types of behaviour that could show that you do not value their ideas and feelings. All children respond well to positive reinforcement of expected behaviour boundaries. By just giving general statements such as â€Å"do not interrupt† or â€Å"well done† does not reinforce or teach good values. Also by asking open questions you can demonstrate that you are listening to the child and or children and giving them time to express their feelings, views and opinions. K19 The importance of being sensitive to communication difficulties with children and how to adapt the way you communicate to different situations. Communication difficulties with children: †¢Hearing difficulties or deaf. †¢Poor vision or blind. †¢Ill health. †¢Special educational needs. †¢Physical disability. †¢Poor language skills or English as an additional language. †¢Disruptive child. †¢Speech problems. Cultural Differences and English as an additional language 1. Smile and have friendly facial expressions. 2. Use hand gestures to gain understanding. 3. Use pictures. 4. Show warmth and encouragement. 5. Use culturally relevant learning materials. 6. Group EAL co-ordinator who shares the same home language. 7. Have some key words in their home language. 8. Use translator. 9. Always treat children with respect and as individuals. 10. Ensure that you take into account their cultural differences, their life experiences and the way they prefer to communicate. 11. Respond appropriately to their non-verbal communication. Hearing impairment 1. Ensure that you always speak clearly and listen carefully. 2. Remove all distractions. 3. Always check and ensure hearing aids are working. 4. Use written communication if age appropriate. 5. Use sign language if and when appropriate. 6. Use a trained interpreter if a high level of skill is required. 7. Explain things using short, clear sentences and draw or use pictures, as required, to illustrate what you mean. 8. Use physical objects when learning new words or concepts. 9. Ensure the child as your full attention and that you maintain eye contact. Visual impairment 1. Use methods of multi-sensory interactions such as touch, sounds and smell. 2. Use different tones of voice with lots of expression. 3. Do not rely on non-verbal communication. 4. Use environmental sounds. 5. Develop routines when interacting with the child, such as using their name and touch in a consistent manner. Have clear signals that show the beginning and the end of your exchanges. 6. When explaining an activity or object ensure all visual communication is clear and understandable. Physical and learning Disabilities 1. Use alternative and augmentative communication such as hand gestures and eye pointing. 2. Use visual aids such as communication boards or displays, photographs, drawings and symbols to represent words or activities. 3. Use chat books or photograph album containing photographs, pictures, symbols, words and messages. 4. Use speech generating devices such as communication boards or displays on a machine which speak a message when a particular button is pressed. 5. Use spelling, using an alphabet board or typing device to spell out words and messages. 6. Use formal signing or signing which is particular to an individual. 7. Use object symbols that include normally objects or small versions of objects which represent an activity, object or person. Such as a set of car keys can represent it is time to go in the car. 8. Use a multi-sensory approach when providing information and learning taking into account the five senses and present information and activities in a different way enhancing learning and involving the children by doing, touching and seeing. 9. Ensure that your surroundings are appropriate and accessible. 10. Judge correct level of understanding. 11. Respond at the correct level repeating information when necessary. 12. Be prepared to wait and listen carefully. These children can be supported by: †¢Senco. †¢Parents. †¢Children under two by the health visitor. †¢EAL co-ordinator. †¢Other professionals †¢Nurture assistant. In terms of our physical environment we have no children with visual or speech impairments or with physical disabilities within the current foundation stage. So therefore we have no need of changing our different areas to accommodate any of these children. I would ensure that we accommodated these children by ensuring that the environment was spacious and accessible, bringing activities to their level or the floor. I would also use more visual and tactile aids. K20 How you can help the children to understand the value and importance of positive relationships with others. Within our school we encourage the children to develop positive relationships with others by praising good behaviour and following our rules. We act as positive role models such as praising nice manners. I have a rule for example, that if you accidently kick a ball over the fence I will let the children retrieve it if they can ask me with lovely manners. If they don’t ask nicely I make them wait and think about what would be a polite way of asking to retrieve the ball, thus instilling positive and desired behaviour. K21 The importance of children valuing and respecting other people’s individuality and how you can encourage and support this. †¢Act as a role model showing that you respect others individuality, feelings, views, ideas and cultures. †¢Have positive images and toys, books and dolls within your setting. †¢Have activities that encourage negotiation, sharing and building on relationships. †¢Demonstrate positive behaviour. †¢Have activities which encourage the children to talk to, listen and find out about others. K22 Why it is important for children to understand and respect other people’s feelings and how you can encourage and support this. †¢Stops the children’s frustration. †¢The children will feel that their feelings are being viewed. †¢Encourages empathy and social skills. †¢Encourages and promotes positive and expected behaviour. †¢Builds relationships. †¢Develops the children’s communication and language. †¢Develops personal, social and emotional skills. †¢Develops the children’s knowledge and understanding of the world. K23 Why it is important to be consistent and fair in dealing with positive and negative behaviour. †¢Being consistent and fair the children will understand right and wrong. †¢The children will understand expected behaviour boundaries and rules. †¢The children will understand consequences. †¢The children will understand that you are not showing favouritism. †¢The children will understand what is acceptable and what is not. Within my setting we reward positive behaviour with praise and other recognition such as house points and stickers. This is done in the presence of the child’s peers to encourage and reinforce positive and desired behaviour. With negative behaviour, if safe to do so we give no attention as it is often a play by the child for your attention. However, some unsafe and disruptive behaviour must be addressed immediately in a consistent and fair manner. K24 Strategies you can use to encourage and reinforce positive behavior Children may have negative behaviour due to: 1. Lack of sleep. 2. Feeling unwell. 3. Problems at home. 4. Sibling rivalry. 5. Tension at home. 6. Some children do not know how to play with others. 7. Bored and frustrated. 8. Lack confidence in socialising with others. We acknowledge positive behaviour and give reasons behind any boundaries such as we walk in school because we might fall over and hurt ourselves or others. We are consistent and fair by rewarding praise, house points and stickers for following the rules. We control negative behaviour by reinforcing and reminding the children of our rules. K25 Strategies you can use to challenge and deal with different types of behaviour which are consistent with your organisation’s policies The school policy aims and expectations are that every member of the school community feels valued and respected and that each person is treated fairly and well. The school’s policy encourages and promotes good relationships and that we work together to help everyone learn. We also aim to help the children grow in a safe and secure environment and for them to become positive, responsible and increasingly independent members of the school community. The school’s main ethos is to reward good behaviour as it believes that this will develop an environment of kindness and co-operation. The school employs sanctions to negative behaviour which are appropriate to each individual child, taking into consideration each child’s needs and the issue. The role of members of staff are to ensure that the rules are enforced in their class, that each individual child is treated fairly and consistently, to monitor repeated incidents and to seek advice from appropriate leadership team if necessary. We also use behaviour observations to help us understand the needs of the individual child such as requiring extra support from key worker, SENCO, EAL Co-ordinator, Management or other professionals. We also use different strategies and resources such as SEAL (Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning) to help individual children with their behaviour. K27 Why it is important to encourage and support positive relationships between children and other adults in the setting and strategies you can use to do this †¢It demonstrates that you are showing respect and sensitively. †¢Promotes good and positive behaviour. †¢Act as a role model for the children. †¢Promotes good communication in a caring and clear way. †¢It promotes good manners. †¢The children feel that they are listened too and that you value what they have to say. †¢It creates a positive atmosphere and environment where the children feel welcome and valued. †¢Promotes a friendly, consistent environment where the children will feel their views are worthwhile. †¢Ensure that you always give reasons and take time to explain your thoughts and actions. The main strategies that we use in the school are we work very closely in a team in the Foundation Area; we have a consistent approach with dealing with the children’s behavioural issues. We encourage the children to interact and build on relationships with all of us by acting as role models and by reinforcing our key rules. We also spend time with all the children across both classrooms in teaching and delivering our planned activities each week including taking phonics sessions, guided reading sessions, show and tell, PE and music, key person story time and supervision of the outside area. We have effective communication across the team to enable us all to keep up to date with any issues such as medical conditions, negative behaviour incidents, records of ongoing assessments / observations, developmental progress and achievements of the children in our care. K28 Why positive relationships with other adults are important. As a practitioner it is important that you maintain and have positive relationships with all adults that you come in contact with to support and develop the children in your care to grow into secure, confident and happy people. Having collaboration and support from parents, colleagues and other professionals will enable you to develop strong relationships which will enhance and benefit the children by demonstrating positive and desired behaviour. The children will cope better with transitions from home to school, to new classroom, to new staff and or support from other professionals. K29 Why it is important to show respect for other adults’ individuality and how to do so ? It’s important to respect other

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

The Innumerable Benefits to Home Schooling Essay -- Home-School Educat

The Innumerable Benefits to Home Schooling In his book The Right Choice – Home Schooling, Chris Klicka argues that â€Å"Sending our children to the public school †¦ is tantamount to sending our children to be trained by the enemy† (Crank 25). Though his words may be considered harsh by some parents, many Americans agree with him and feel that public school is only endangering their children; home schooling is the modern day alternative that many mothers and fathers have chosen to turn to. Those who feel that the world of the public school is detrimental to their children’s growth and health are not alone; they share the beliefs of many parents who feel that home schooling has many benefits and advantages that public schools cannot offer to students today. Among complaints about public schools is that they are anti-religion. Advocates for home schooling say that children cannot be brought up in a religious atmosphere at home and then be sent to school where it is challenged or ridiculed. This would be very difficult for a child, especially because it can be difficult for adults at times. Former President of Yale University, Timothy Dwight, even stated, â€Å"to commit our children to the care of irreligious persons is to commit lambs to the superintendency of wolves† (Crank). There are two primary ways in which schools are classified as anti-religion. Schools may directly attack a religion by supplying its students with books of history and literature. In historical references, there is little about the positive effects of religion and in literature, it can be attacked very subtly, while other books convey its evil side. Schools are often also considered anti-religious is because they can completely ignore religion, which ... ...m/campaign/815/c3teachers.html Christian Home Educators of Florida. (2003). Retrieved November 19, 2003. from Crank, D. (2002, Dec. ). Why are you home schooling?. Unless The Lord ... Magazine. Retrieved Nov. 23, 2003, from oling.htm Curry, Lorraine. (1997). Homeschool World: Combining Work and Homeschool. Retrieved November 23, 2003. from Donaldson, K. Pros. Retrieved Nov. 19, 2003, from Bowling Green State University: Lechtreck, Roy. (1994, January). The Case for Homeschooling. Retrieved November 19, 2003 casehomescho.shtml

Monday, January 13, 2020

Pillsbury Case Marketing

Mike Johnson Pillsbury Case Beth Gallant 1) What are the challenges that Ivan Guillen faces in his role as marketing manager of the RBG business? As marketing manager of the RBG business, Ivan Guillen must propose a solution to repair Pillsbury refrigerated baked goods (RGB)’s business performance. Since the refrigerated-cookie product line consisted of 62% of RBG’s unit sales and over 75% of the company’s profits, Guillen found it appropriate to alter this segment in the market.Proposing this idea to GMCC would require Guillen to consider all the challenges he faces. Guillen will have to discover a strategy to increase household penetration since it has fallen to 24% in the past few years. The lack in market penetration has caused a miniscule growth of only one percent in the past three years. In order for Guillen to increase the penetration percent, he will need to reevaluate the â€Å"Kisses† commercial. The assessment of this advertisement revealed the lack of effectiveness for brand recognition and relevance. Introducing.Also, when reviewing the â€Å"Purchase Drivers In Canada As Compared To The US† it is apparent that consumers are concerned with the quality of the dough, the flavors offered, and the amount of cookies offered. Either Guillen is going to need to draw up a marketing plan that addresses these issues are alter the cookie in some way. Lastly, Guillen will have to conduct marketing research to understand the difference between Canadian and US markets. The â€Å"Kisses† commercial was adopted from the US and slightly changed for the Canadian market.Seeing as it failed to generate the projected annual growth of five to seven percent, there is a clear difference between the Canadian and US advertising markets. 2) What are consumer insights (in general)? What types of business challenges can benefit from consumer insights? How are these insights obtained? Consumer insight is when a marketer researches unid entified/unmet needs in the marketplace or a new/better way to satisfy an existing need. The job of the marketer is to analyze the information and capitalize on the identified need.There are two main types of research, quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative research revolves around the measurement and analysis of relationships between variables. Random sampling techniques, like questionnaires and surveys, provide marketers with results that can be generalized to a larger population. Qualitative research, on the other hand, takes on a more understanding and conceptual approach. Through focus groups, marketers can gather an in-depth understanding of consumer behavior.The most common type of research used at GMCC are the focus groups. Focus groups are where a small group of people have a moderated discussion about a marketing-oriented issue. The group then summarizes its opinions and eventually comes to a solution they find fit. Summarizing all of the opinions of the focus groups c an aid in new product development, brand messaging, and promotional campaigns. Another type of marketing research GMCC uses are concept tests. Concept tests are commonly used to improve new product development and develop brand messaging.Concept tests provide an image of the product, pricing information, instructions, and key benefits to a consumer in verbal or visual form. The consumer then quantitatively evaluates the product by stating their degree of purchase intent. Lastly, GMCC also performs creative testing in order to evaluate the effectiveness of ads. When an add is put through the creative test, they are being judged on their purchase intent, relevance, and brand linkage scores. Having a powerful add that influences the consumer can significantly increase brand recognition.This â€Å"Kisses† commercial that Pillsbury had launched in Canada did not meet its expectations due to the lack of creative testing. 3) Given the key learnings from the usage and attitude study on pp 6-7 of the case, what are the corresponding implications for what actions the team should take? (Format this into a chart of key learning, implication, action) Key Learning| Implication| Action| Scratch baking is the dominant method of baking cookies in Canada. In Canada, 56% bake only from scratch. In the US, use of refrigerated dough is the most popular baking method. The refrigerated dough market does not seem to have a strong presence in Canada. It seems as if people are either unaware of refrigerated dough or they just do not prefer it. | Either research how to make refrigerated dough more appealing to Canadian consumers or ignore the Canadian market and focus on the US market (since it has a stronger demand for refrigerated dough). | Top four purchase drivers are the same in both countries. Convenience and taste are at the top of both lists. The quality of the cookie dough is not valued as highly in Canada and kids have more of an influence in driving purchases. Clearly there is a big gap between the quality perception in Canada and the United States. Canadian consumers are implying that they want a higher quality product and a product that is more convenient for children. | Propose a marketing strategy that addresses the quality of the cookie or targets children. Since children have a stronger influence in Canadian markets than US markets, reaching out to them could increase brand recognition and sales. | Both users and lapsed users perceive refrigerated cookie dough as convenient.Lapsed agree that RBG cookies are convenient, but non-users do not rate them as convenient. | Lapsed and current users agree on convenience, leaving marketers to believe this is actually true. Non-users, however, are not receiving this message. Non-users in Canada are not as aware of the product as they should be. | Reaching out to non-users through ads and commercials can increase the convenience recognition for RBG cookies. If non-users considered the cookies convenien t they would be more likely to purchase them. | 4) Why did Guillen and his team conduct the in-home and discovery workshops?To find out what? Conducting a qualitative research was proposed in order to gain a better understanding of consumer perceptions, beliefs, and feelings towards RBG cookies. The usage and attitude study portrayed the differences between Canada and the United States, whereas this study will determine which aspects of the baking experience are most appealing to consumers. The ethnography study RBG conducted, In-home Immersions, sought to gain an in-depth understanding of personal motivations and actions towards a particular product. RBG entered the homes of two lapsed users and wo brand champions while the consumers were baking the good. During the visit, the marketers hoped to develop an understanding of the consumer-brand relationship, what surrounds it, the environment around it, and the bigger-picture influences. For example, RBG found out that when it came to feeding the family, the solutions had to be easy, quick, and pleasing to children. It also showed the sense of happiness that arises when baking occurs. Knowing this information could help propose the idea of implementing comfortable implications in future ads.The discovery workshop was similar to the ethnography study, except the study group consisted of 18-27 consumers working together. This comfortable environment allows consumers to discuss opportunities and criticize issues of the product. 6) What actions would you suggest that Guillen and his team take? a. What should their value proposition be? b. Which consumers should they target? Why? c. What should the brand messaging be? Guillen has numerous tough decisions ahead of him when proposing his new marketing strategy.However, Guillen conducted a multitudinous of studies to provide him some insight on what an appropriate solution would be. In terms of the product itself, there are many alterations that could be made. Children have more of an influence in Canadian markets than in US markets. Providing kid themed offerings could increase brand recognition and demand from children. Simple ideas such as adding famous cartoon characters or sports themes could sway a child to want RBG cookies. Also, adding new flavors/types of cookies could increase the width of customers.Providing healthier options, dietary restrictions (gluten free, low sodium), and new flavors would reach out to more consumers. Expanding new product development would also be benefit to brand recognition. Providing Pillsbury baking tools like cookie cutters, timers, oven mitts, and aprons would cause the experience of baking to be more enjoyable. Another recommendation to Guillen would be to re-new and strengthen relationships with consumers. In doing so, Guillen should stress the nostalgic and experiential aspect.Through the in-home study, it has been concluded that baking introduces a sense of happiness in the kitchen. Having this percepti on instilled in a consumers mind may persuade them to purchase the refrigerated dough for themselves or as a gift. Having a celebrity spokesperson influence consumers can have a positive impact as well. In previous commercials, RBG cookies solely relied on the Pillsbury doughboy. Although he is a very recognizable character, maybe the consumers do not find him as trustworthy as they would a celebrity.The celebrity could stress the easiness, convenience, and â€Å"homemade† feeling RBG cookies provide. In-store display and packaging also has a significant impact on the consumer. Having a brand portrayed in a positive way gives the consumer the feeling that he or she is making the right choice. Research showed that most purchases of refrigerated dough were out of impulse. Sales can simply increase by strategically placing the product to locations where consumers frequently buy on impulse. Increasing the visibility with the doughboy logo would have the consumers more likely thin king about the product.If the cookies are going to be strategically placed and visible, then they are going to need to have attractive packaging. Offering trial packages with three different flavors would also allow consumers to have the opportunity to try out new flavors. Offering different serving sizes and holiday themes also expands the horizon of consumer tastes and preferences. In the short run, investing in social media, advertisement, and a spokesperson is most beneficial action to take. It is a quick opportunity for consumers to be persuaded into purchasing the object.However, in the long run it would be most beneficial to introduce new product flavors and healthy and dietary restrictive options. By renewing and strengthening its relationship with existing and lapsed consumers, Pillsbury can increase household penetration. Changing the perception of the product in the minds of the consumer from food to family activity/gift can influence the non-users to sample the product. Lastly, acknowledging new 21st century dynamics of healthy lifestyles and smaller servings can appeal to new market segments and eventually increase sales.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Understanding Very Large Numbers

Have you ever wondered what number comes after a trillion? Or how many zeros there are in a vigintillion? ​Some day you might need to know this for a science or math class, or if you happen to enter one of several mathematical or scientific fields.   Numbers Bigger Than a Trillion The digit zero plays an important role as you  count very large numbers. It helps to  track these multiples of 10  because the larger the number is, the more zeros are needed. Name Number of Zeros Groups of 3 Zeros Ten 1 0 Hundred 2 0 Thousand 3 1 (1,000) Ten thousand 4 1 (10,000) Hundred thousand 5 1 (100,000) Million 6 2 (1,000,000) Billion 9 3(1,000,000,000) Trillion 12 4 (1,000,000,000,000) Quadrillion 15 5 Quintillion 18 6 Sextillion 21 7 Septillion 24 8 Octillion 27 9 Nonillion 30 10 Decillion 33 11 Undecillion 36 12 Duodecillion 39 13 Tredecillion 42 14 Quattuordecillion 45 15 Quindecillion 48 16 Sexdecillion 51 17 Septen-decillion 54 18 Octodecillion 57 19 Novemdecillion 60 20 Vigintillion 63 21 Centillion 303 101 Grouping Zeros by Threes Many  people  find it easy to understand that the number 10 has one zero, 100 has two zeros, and 1,000 has three zeros. These numbers are used all the time in daily living, whether it is dealing with money or counting something as simple as our music playlist or the mileage on our cars. When you get to million, billion, and trillion, things become a little more complicated. How many zeros come after the one in a trillion? Its hard to keep track of that and count each individual zero, so  these long numbers  have been broken down into groups of three zeros. For example, its much easier to remember that a trillion is written with four sets of three zeros than it is to count out 12 separate zeros. While you might think that ones pretty simple, just wait until you have to count 27 zeros for an octillion or 303 zeros for a centillion. Then you will be thankful that you only have to remember nine and 101 sets of three zeros, respectively. Powers of 10 Shortcut In mathematics  and science, you  can rely on the powers of 10 to quickly express exactly how many zeros are needed for these larger numbers. For example, a shortcut for writing out a trillion is 1012  (10 to the power of 12). The 12 indicates that the number  needs a total of 12 zeros. You can see how much easier these are to read than if there were just a bunch of zeros: Quintillion 1018 or 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 Decillion 1033  or 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 The Enormous Numbers: Googol and Googolplex You are probably very familiar with the search engine and tech company Google. Did you know that the name was inspired by another very large number? Though the spelling is different, the  googol  and the  googolplex  played a role in the naming of the tech giant. A googol has 100 zeros and is expressed as 10100. It is often used to express any large quantity, even though it is a quantifiable number. It makes sense that the largest search engine that pulls a large quantity of data from the internet would find this word useful. The term googol was coined by the American mathematician Edward Kasner in his 1940 book, Mathematics and the Imagination. The story goes that Kasner asked his then 9-year-old nephew, Milton Sirotta, what to name this ridiculously long number. Sirotta came up with  googol. But why is a googol important if its actually less than a centillion? Quite simply, a  googol is used to define a  googolplex.  A googolplex is 10 to the power of googol, a number that boggles the mind. In fact, a googolplex is so large that theres really no known use for it. Some say that it even exceeds the total number of atoms in the universe. The googolplex is not even the largest number defined to date. Mathematicians  and scientists have also devised Grahams number and Skewes number. Both of these require a math degree to even begin to understand. Short and Long Scales of a Billion If you thought the concept of a googolplex is tricky, some people cannot even agree on what defines a billion. In the U.S. and most of the world, it is accepted that 1 billion equals 1,000 million. It  is written as 1,000,000,000 or 109. This number is used often in science and finance, and it is called the short scale. In the long scale, 1 billion is equal to 1 million million. For this number, you will need a 1 followed by 12 zeros: 1,000,000,000,000 or 1012. The long scale was first described by Genevieve Guitel in 1975. It is used in France and, for a time, was accepted in the United Kingdom as well.