Monday, September 30, 2019
This essay is geared towards analyzing an article that was done on the year 2001 concerning the increasing Ã¢â¬Å"Consumer Demand for Fruits and Vegetables: The U.S. Example.Ã¢â¬ The consumption pattern then could be seen to have increased over the years. It was in the article that several factors where enumerated with regards to the increasing demand for both fruits and vegetables among the citizen in the United States of America. It was then concluded that the demand could be seen as a pattern where other developing countries could have the same patterns in the long run. As could be implied in the articleÃ¢â¬â¢s title, the author aims to reach a certain justification that given time, several countries would have an increase in the demand for fruits and vegetables.Consumer Demand for Fruits and Vegetables: The U.S. Example It could be gathered that this particular article is directed towards the behavioral pattern of the people in the United States. Ergo, it could be deduced th at most of the data gathered is much dedicated in the statistical aspect where the demand for fruits and vegetables had increased. It was said that the consumption of both fruits and vegetables had already been a part of the usual food consumption on the people of the country especially when it espouses a healthy lifestyle (Kurtzweil, 1997).It could be seen then that, over the years, food consumption patterned has increased especially when incomes had increased. It could be sensed here that as income increases, the buying of goods also increases, including that of fruits and vegetables aside from the other necessities. To further reinforce this assertion, it was studied that over the course of year 1961 and 1998, there had been a considerable increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetable on places where income had surely increased. However, those who had lower incomes had little or no difference when it comes to the consumption of the said goods.It would then be heir apparent that as the incomes of the people increased there is an extensive increase in buying goods. Suffice to say that this first reason would have given a reason for the increase in the consumption rates of the people. In connection to this, the main argument for this could be seen as such that most people were gearing towards the convenience of a product.Canned and processed fruits and vegetables then are getting popular. It would then be inferred that the supplies needed would increase since manufacturing these goods could take larger number of fruits or vegetable. Albeit, fresh fruits are still popular and they are aptly so since they are much convenient. Connecting this to the second reason, it could be seen that technological aspects had made the difference since packing and delivering goods could be made easy.However, this assertion could be further asserted by the third justification over the change in consumption pattern. In this aspect the concept of healthy living could be injec ted. It was said then that the people had a strong belief in going back to the healthy living lifestyle (Pollack, 2001). It seems that the household with older members in the family tend to purchase more fruits and vegetables. Age then becomes another big factor.The fourth assertion could be found that the availability of the goods has already increased. This increase in the availability could have been due to the imports from other countries. It could be seen here then that a Ã¢â¬Å"wide selection of productsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ had been made available to American citizens that even if the fruits or vegetables are not produced for the season in the particular country, it could still be made available through importing andÃ trading (Pollack, 2001).As was mentioned above, improved technological aspect has paved the way for easier shipping and packing that some seasonal fruits could be made available in the United States. The trade business has also increased during this time that some p roducts that are not actually available in the country had made its way to American soil due to trade and imports. It seems that tropical produce had become popular among the people. Americans may be able to produce these tropical goods on some areas of the land but the demand for it is high that supplies are needed; hence trade and imports are needed.All these patterns if conjoined together could create a change in the demand for the said goods Ã¢â¬â fruits and vegetables. On the year 1997-99, it was said that the trend consumption of fruits and vegetables in the United States had been averaged as 741 pounds per person. It could be seen as 25 percent more than what was consumed during the year 1977-79. The increase was much focused on the fresh melon and processed potatoes. Either way, vegetables had been a forerunner when it comes to peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s favorites as compared to fruits in general. In fact, vegetable consumption has increased to 24 percent as compared to the 8 percen t consumption rate of fruits.After the mid-seventies, it could be argued that lesser people had become enamored with canned goods and are much inclined to purchasing fresher goods. It seems then that aside from the increase in percentage, a much wider variety of vegetables are now made available as some people are slowly creating certain variations in their consumption purchases. Examples of these vegetable diets are asparagus, broccoli, cauliflower, carrots, onions, and lettuces, and many others. Of all the fruits, banana had become the most popular fresh fruit treat. However, this particular fruit is garnered through imports. Other examples of fruits that are popular are apples and oranges, also grapes, pears, and strawberries. Regardless of the increase in consumption rates, it would still not sufficient to claim that Americans are consuming the Ã¢â¬Å"recommended daily servingsÃ¢â¬ for both fruits and vegetables.It could then be concluded that the demand for fruits and vegeta bles in the U.S has increased through several reasons: 1. Convenience might lead to larger demand for supplies, 2. Technological aspects makes it more convenient, 3. Health issues are being addressed, and 4. Availability of goods through imports and trade is rapidly growing. Also, these patterns could also be realized in other developing countries.References Kurtzweil, P. (1997). Fruits and Vegetables: Eating Your Way to 5 A Day.Ã Ã Retrieved September 27, 2007, from http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/eating5-aday/297_five.htmlPollack, S. L. (2001). Consumer Demand for Fruits and Vegetables: The U.S. Example [Electronic Version]. Changing Structure of Global Food Consumption and Trade. Retrieved September 27, 2007.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Letting Go In each and every one of us, there lies a fear. There are lots of fears in this life but what we're talking about is a fear that dwells inside of us, where mostly we do not tend to reveal it outside. That fear has the potential to eat us up slowly from the inside till it consumes our whole being. This fear is there in each and every single human being no matter how he strong he may be both on the core and the outside. These fears are but many and differ from person to person but I choose to be specific here and that is the fear of letting go.People come and people go in our lives but what hurts the most than letting go of the one you love the most in your life, the one whom you once chose to never leave through thick and thin. People hurt us from time to time. Of course that's Life, No doubt about it, but HURT sometime can leave wounds in our hearts where scars left never seem to fade away. There are some things that time does not seem to mend. Hard to accept but true. But here's the funny part, No matter how or to what extent these people hurt you, yet you still love them.You still chose to be patient. One of the Laws of Nature is the Ã¢â¬ËLimits of Tolerance'. There is a certain climax where one can bear a certain kind of pressure. When the Ã¢â¬Å"limit of toleranceÃ¢â¬ has been reached, the nature provides a feedback mechanism. We rise from dust, nature itself, and back to dust. These laws dwell In all of us. That's when we choose to stay away and give up every virtue of love. Yes. Maybe we've had our closures with them. Maybe we've given a good ending. But the worst comes into the picture when we still think of changing the past.Still wishing sometimes you were a better person, a stronger person to bear hurtful things that the one you love does. Wishing you had done things differently. Wishing Ã¢â¬Å"had they only changedÃ¢â¬ and what not. This Is when that fear, the fear of letting go grows In our hearts. It consumes our thoughts Like a fire and rages our mind. It freezes our heart cold and turns It like a stone. Here's when we really make a real CHOICE. The choice to let go forever. To stop worrying what the consequences of our actions could be.This fear is, In fact, against the attitude of love (which always bears and stays). Life Is governed by choices and the choice to let go of someone Is the hardest In life. It questions the attitude of love as In Ã¢â¬ËYes I would bear, but even If I did, would It be worth It? Ã¢â¬ This question Is, again hard to accept, but a fear of letting go. But Life never gives us many choices and the beauty of this fear Is that the questions that It puts In our mind are only answered sometimes by gluing Into the fear Itself and choosing to let go because sometimes that Is the only way we can find out.Kampuchea Deletion By Kampuchea mechanism. We rise from dust, nature itself, and back to dust. These laws dwell in all Maybe we've had our closures with them. Maybe we've given a good ending. But the only changedÃ¢â¬ and what not. This is when that fear, the fear of letting go grows in our hearts. It consumes our thoughts like a fire and rages our mind. It freezes our heart cold and turns it like a stone. Here's when we really make a real CHOICE. The choice This fear is, in fact, against the attitude of love (which always bears and stays).Life is governed by choices and the choice to let go of someone is the hardest in life. It questions the attitude of love as in miss I would bear, but even if I did, would it be worth it? Ã¢â¬ This question is, again hard to accept, but a fear of letting go. But Life never gives us many choices and the beauty of this fear is that the questions that it puts in our mind are only answered sometimes by giving into the fear itself and choosing to let go because sometimes that is the only way we can find out. Ã¢â¬â Kampuchea Dingdong Letting Go Letting Go In each and every one of us, there lies a fear. There are lots of fears in this life but what we're talking about is a fear that dwells inside of us, where mostly we do not tend to reveal it outside. That fear has the potential to eat us up slowly from the inside till it consumes our whole being. This fear is there in each and every single human being no matter how he strong he may be both on the core and the outside. These fears are but many and differ from person to person but I choose to be specific here and that is the fear of letting go.People come and people go in our lives but what hurts the most than letting go of the one you love the most in your life, the one whom you once chose to never leave through thick and thin. People hurt us from time to time. Of course that's Life, No doubt about it, but HURT sometime can leave wounds in our hearts where scars left never seem to fade away. There are some things that time does not seem to mend. Hard to accept but true. But here's the funny part, No matter how or to what extent these people hurt you, yet you still love them.You still chose to be patient. One of the Laws of Nature is the Ã¢â¬ËLimits of Tolerance'. There is a certain climax where one can bear a certain kind of pressure. When the Ã¢â¬Å"limit of toleranceÃ¢â¬ has been reached, the nature provides a feedback mechanism. We rise from dust, nature itself, and back to dust. These laws dwell In all of us. That's when we choose to stay away and give up every virtue of love. Yes. Maybe we've had our closures with them. Maybe we've given a good ending. But the worst comes into the picture when we still think of changing the past.Still wishing sometimes you were a better person, a stronger person to bear hurtful things that the one you love does. Wishing you had done things differently. Wishing Ã¢â¬Å"had they only changedÃ¢â¬ and what not. This Is when that fear, the fear of letting go grows In our hearts. It consumes our thoughts Like a fire and rages our mind. It freezes our heart cold and turns It like a stone. Here's when we really make a real CHOICE. The choice to let go forever. To stop worrying what the consequences of our actions could be.This fear is, In fact, against the attitude of love (which always bears and stays). Life Is governed by choices and the choice to let go of someone Is the hardest In life. It questions the attitude of love as In Ã¢â¬ËYes I would bear, but even If I did, would It be worth It? Ã¢â¬ This question Is, again hard to accept, but a fear of letting go. But Life never gives us many choices and the beauty of this fear Is that the questions that It puts In our mind are only answered sometimes by gluing Into the fear Itself and choosing to let go because sometimes that Is the only way we can find out.Kampuchea Deletion By Kampuchea mechanism. We rise from dust, nature itself, and back to dust. These laws dwell in all Maybe we've had our closures with them. Maybe we've given a good ending. But the only changedÃ¢â¬ and what not. This is when that fear, the fear of letting go grows in our hearts. It consumes our thoughts like a fire and rages our mind. It freezes our heart cold and turns it like a stone. Here's when we really make a real CHOICE. The choice This fear is, in fact, against the attitude of love (which always bears and stays).Life is governed by choices and the choice to let go of someone is the hardest in life. It questions the attitude of love as in miss I would bear, but even if I did, would it be worth it? Ã¢â¬ This question is, again hard to accept, but a fear of letting go. But Life never gives us many choices and the beauty of this fear is that the questions that it puts in our mind are only answered sometimes by giving into the fear itself and choosing to let go because sometimes that is the only way we can find out. Ã¢â¬â Kampuchea Dingdong
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Adelphia Scandal Essay ? Adelphia was founded in 1952 by John Rigas and his brother Gus Rigas in Coudersport, Pennsylvania with the purchase of their first cable franchise for $300. After 20 years, the Rigas brothers incorporated their company under the name Adelphia which derived its name from a Greek word which means brothers, an apt corporate title for a business that would employ generations of the Rigas family. Adelphia was a cable television company and built its success on a strong commitment to customer care; and because of this commitment, a glorious growth spree would follow. By 1998, Adelphia passed the two million-customer milestone and served approximately 5.6 million cable television customers nationwide. The company made significant strides in product development and the implementation of fiber optic technology and expanded their home and business offerings to include digital cable, local and long distance telephone services, messaging, enhanced data, high-speed Internet and video services . John Rigas managed Adelphia from its corporate headquarters in Coudersport, PA. His brother Gus sold his interest in Adelphia in 1983. And after some time, JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s sons Michael, Timothy and James, serve as executive vice presidents, directors and principal stockholders. John built Adelphia on a strong commitment to family, community, quality service and customer care which became the core values and culture of the company. The Evolution of Adelphia In August of 1986, Adelphia Communications went public. Its first three years were focused on generating revenue by increasing its customer base through mergers and acquisitions. Although the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s profitability had suffered as a result of the ambitious expansion, its revenue-generating capabilities had not. From the $30 million generated in sales during its first year, annual sales shot up to $131 million in 1988. Adelphia continued to make its presence known by making several important acquisitions of other cable systems such as the Suburban Buffalo System from Comax Telcom Corp., the South Dade System from Americable Associates, Ltd., New Castle System from Cablentertainment, Inc., and Jones Intercable which was the third largest cable system operator in New York during that time. Moreover, Adelphia entered into a partnership with unaffiliated parties to form Olympus Communications in southeast Florida which became a powerful money-making business as it served roughly 250,000 subscribers in West Palm Beach area. Adelphia was performing admirably and continued to expand by making other acquisitions and consolidation maneuvers through 1999 and 2000, bringing its subscriber base up to an impressive 5.5 million. Though the company was heavily indebted after the succession of major purchases of other cable companies, equipment, and infrastructures, analysts were looking favorably on Adelphia as late as January 2002, noting that the company was well positioned for acquisition or merger with another major cable company. The Discovery of the Fraud Oren Cohen, a high-yield-bond analyst for Merrill Lynch had followed Adelphia for a decade and thought there was something about the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s spending that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t add up. HeÃ¢â¬â¢d noticed that the Rigases were buying their own stock aggressively, but he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t figure out how they were paying for it. They didnÃ¢â¬â¢t appear to have the cash themselves. John Rigas made $1.4 million in 2000. Michael, Tim, and James each took home $237,000. The Rigases didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any sources of income outside Adelphia. They never sold their stock, and it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t pay a dividend. Cohen was pretty sure their private cable systems werenÃ¢â¬â¢t throwing off cash. But every time Cohen tried to get an explanation, Adelphia rebuffed him. On March 27, 2002, however, Adelphia officials disclosed $2.3 billion in previously unrecorded debt incurred through co-borrowings between Adelphia and other Rigas family entities under the umbrella of the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s private trust, Highland Holdings. Under these loan agreements, the Rigas entities were responsible for repaying the debt, but if they were unable to do so, Adelphia would be liable. Cohen was astounded to see the footnote disclosure and pressed Tim Rigas for details at the end of a conference call that day. Things in Coudersport quickly spun out of control as shareholders asked for clarity and transparency. The revelations and the investigation that followed sent the company spiraling deeper and deeper into a scandal that the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) eventually called, Ã¢â¬Å"one of the most extensive financial frauds ever to take place at a public companyÃ¢â¬ . The stock continued to fall and on May 15, 2002 John Rigas resigned as chairman and CEO. Adelphia Scandal. (2018, Nov 11).
Friday, September 27, 2019
History - Essay Example In over four hundred years ago, some of the settlers and Europeans coexisted peacefully, while others fought each other. Even today, many people are still migrating to America to seek a better life. Although slave trade is outdated, there is a high rise of illegal immigrants. Immigration is relevant in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world; it has a great impact on the economy. People who run factories, restaurants and farms, find immigrants helpful in their businesses. Immigrants are a cheap source of labor. Therefore, this means low operating costs, high profits, and low prices for commodities produced. For some Americans, immigrants are a hurt to the economy, for instance, high school drop outs who are seeking jobs say immigrants are interfering with the job entry level to take lower wages. Other groups in the society believe immigrants provide a great source of labor, which result to high yield. Immigrants spending on necessities like food, shelter and clothing leads to an increase in domestic gross product. Immigration has resulted to an increase in population, with an estimate of 82% increase from the immigrants. The immigrants come with a positive attitude to excel; they are known to be creative, industrious and adventurous. Many of the immigrants start their businesses that contribute to revenue. In social circles, racism is experienced towards the immigrants, especially the minority groups. For instance, racism exists between the Africa Americans and the non-white Latino immigrants. Attacks and fights have also been experienced between African immigrants and Africa Americans. Because of migration, religion has great diverse in America. For instance, increase in Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism. Politically, most of the immigrants associate with groups that address immigration issues. The issue of shared amenities is believed to strain a state with time. For instance, if water sources are not increased, then people will
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Korean War - Essay Example The colonial started in 1910, which was marked by positive developments such as population growth because of improvement in hygiene and introduction of modern medicine. The colonial government was also responsible for many other improvements besides health such as implementing policies to modernize institutions and the Korean economy (Thomas White International, Ltd.). Other developments were expansion of railway, roads, harbors, telegraph, and the telephone network. Following Korean was not happy with the colonization by the Japanese. As much as the colonization brought development, Koreans were being oppressed by the Japanese rule. It was common for them to carry out demonstrations for independence from time to time. One incident was when young Koreans mostly students and Christians were inspired by US president Woodrow Wilson Idealism in 1918 and decide to carry out peaceful demonstrations. This did not go down in favor of the Koreans because the Japanese responded with brutal for ce, which comprise of beheading schoolchildren, and nailing Christians on crosses. Korea had been divided into two after the World War II, the north and south. The north had been occupied by Soviet troops and the south by Americans. The Korean War broke out when the northern communist side invaded the southern democratic side; historians see it as the first armed battle of the Cold War. Post war South Korea for several years underwent political hardships under various autocratic rulers. Most notorious being Major general Park Chung Hee, however coincidentally his rule saw significant economic growth of the country. Protests led to the military regime holding elections in 1987, which led to a stable governance starting in 1990. In terms of economy, South Korea impressively has transformed from poverty to one of AsiaÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest economies. Its per capita GNP has grown greatly from $100 in 1963 to over $16,000 by 2005 (Thomas White International, Ltd.). As much
Management Communication- Change Management Report - Assignment Example ement implementation; and the final step involves any corrective action, which needs to be taken to remove gaps in the process (Lattuch and Young, 2011). The purpose of this project is to discuss ways in which changes in the management of a company can be effectively communicated to the employees. In this case, the company is about to make some changes in the senior level management and some staff will also be added to the organization. These thoughts of change are creating disruptions in workplace conditions as some of the workers fear that this change may affect them adversely. As a result, the workers are losing their confidence in the organization and productivity of the company might be hampered. In this context, the change management planning process, organizational activities as well as communication and implementation tactics are to be discussed. Firstly, there are certain positive changes that the company wants to incorporate. This is only possible if the existing structure of senior management is altered as analysts of the company strongly believe that this will be essential in realizing the new goals. Secondly, organizational development (OD) is expected to be achieved through a humanistic approach by relying on human potential. This is the reason why the company wants to add new human resource to its existing base. Organizational development implies the change, which an organization goes through in order to survive and thrive. Change management for organizational development is the way in which decision makers manage changes that are necessary for facilitating organizational development. The first step of achieving organizational development is to create a well-structured plan for the task. Bullock and Batten (1985) has come up with a four phased model of planned change, which can be broken up into exploration, planning, action and integration. The model includes two broad steps, namely the process of change (describing the way in which an
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
What do you feel is an appropriate balance between being successful financially and the need to serve others by giving back - Essay Example Being successful financially is really a huge achievement but fixing an aim to only spend that money on your self, is that a big deal, a genuine feat? There is not a single way to create wealth and enlarge it, there is a huge literature concerning this. In fact there are countless people in this world who have no real ideas about their fortunes, but the ones who remember to give back to the community, they are not so very common. There is nothing like donating a chunk out of that huge pie to someone dying of hunger. Only a little generosity is required on part of all of us and a miraculous change can be produced in no time. That is my perspective when talking about what I plan to do with my wealth. Be it a small team or a big conglomerate, being successful economically and financially needs social responsiveness to be keenly observed. This is the demand of the present global economy. Taking care about who actually needs to be helped out is another big issue. OneÃ¢â¬â¢s hard-earned fortune should carefully be devoted to those who intend to use that money in order to better their situations. The point is, if the process of Ã¢â¬Ëgiving backÃ¢â¬â¢ is only applicable when one has finally established a stable business or if it is a life-long process applicable at any point? I think this is not just about donating a few dollars, giving back can also be about engaging oneself in useful volunteer work. In fact taking time out and making some destitute old man living in some old home, feel that he is not all alone in the world and bringing a smile to his face, that is also about giving back. One cannot limit oneself to giving back by the aid of some dollars, since it is also about whether one can bring any real change in the life of deserving people that can make them live again. Self-consciousness is the right motive for creating a positive balance between being
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Introduction to fiction - Essay Example Whilst searching for symbolism in the story, I cam across a few points like, Ã¢â¬Å"It was large enough so that it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem fragile, or particularly vulnerable if anyone sideswiped the table or Mondo blundered into it during play. She asked her husband to please not drop his house key in it. It was meant to be emptyÃ¢â¬ (207). This excerpt primarily describes the fact that her husband, AndreaÃ¢â¬â¢s, was someone was not part of the bowl theory and could not identify with the symbol. When mentioning that she had bought the bowl at a craft fair in secret with her lover, it further signifies that she has been looking for her lost love and continuing affairs with him through the bowl. She must have not acted quickly enough to seize the moment with her lover, hence the line, Ã¢â¬Å"Her lover had said that she was always too slow to know what she really lovedÃ¢â¬ (209). Through this we get the impression that perhaps she was too obsessed with the bowl to continue on with her affair. At one point it is shared that she even Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦dreamed of the bowl. Twice in a waking dream-early in the morning, between sleep and the last nap before rising-she had a clear vision of itÃ¢â¬ (208). The bowl represented her affair and eventually it would be the bowl that ends her marriage. When looking back on the story, it opens with Ã¢â¬Å"The bowl was perfectÃ¢â¬ (206). Andrea feels like she made a mistake not admitting her affair and starting a life with her lover; therefore she loves the bowl as if it were her ex-lover and obsesses over it because to her, it is all she has left of him. She explains her guilt in this manner, Ã¢â¬Å"Sometimes in the morning, she would look at him (her husband) and feel guilty that she had such a constant secretÃ¢â¬ (208). She is continuing her affair through the bowl and is still having feelings of guilt. This further signifies her inertia with her ex-lover and clings on to the bowl in memory
Monday, September 23, 2019
The Specific Heat Capacity of Water and Metal - Lab Report Example The temperature of 500 ml of water in a beaker was measured before a warm heater connected to power supply was dipped in the beaker. After 10 minutes of heating and constant stirring of water, the power supply was switched off, and water temperature measured. The same procedure was repeated for a period of 15 minutes. The results were recorded in table 1. The temperature of aluminium block was recorded before a heater connected to a power supply was used to heat the block for a period of 8 minutes. The above procedure was repeated using Copper block and the results were recorded in table 2. The experimental specific heat capacity of water was 4785 JKg-1 oC-1 while the literature value was 4187 JKg-1 oC-1. Therefore, the percentage error for water was calculated using the formula: % Error= |Experimental value-Theoretical value| Ãâ"100 The specific heat capacity of water determined in this experiment had a numerical value of 4785 Ã ± 263 JKg-1 oC-1 while that of aluminium and copper were 1278 and 545 JKg-1 oC-1, respectively. The standard (literature) specific heat capacities of water, aluminium and copper are 4187, 900 and 386 JKg-1 oC-1, respectively (Table of specific heats). The obtained values were more than the literature values. The anomalies observed between these values were probably due to random errors in the experimental procedures e.g. the loss of heat to the surrounding and the presence of impurities in the water hence leading to an increase in the boiling points. Systematic errors could be due to the weights of the metal blocks and temperature readings as well as fluctuations in pressure. In future experiments, loss of energy to the surroundings could be avoided by using more energy to heat the water for it to attain the required temperature. In addition, water with higher levels of purity can be u sed in the experiments so that the effect of impurities on
Sunday, September 22, 2019
George Eastman Essay George Eastman is best remembered for his very significant invention which is the Kodak camera. Through his invention, he made photography easy and inexpensive to people. Although George Eastman was a dropout from school, he was able to support his mother and his two sisters, one of whom was severely handicapped . His father died early when he was 14, which is why he had to drop from school. He then worked in an insurance company and then in a local bank where he served as a clerk. Using his ability and creative mind, he invented the first camera which was powered by a roll film. A few years later, he successfully directed his own Eastman Kodak Company. His exposure in photography started when he was 24 when he planned to visit Sto. Domingo together with his co-worker. Before the vacation, he was advised to record their trip so he prepared photographic outfits and materials that are big and complicated. From there, he concentrated in making the long process of photography simple while he was employed as a clerk. After three years, he was able to finish his dry plate formula and patented machines for producing more plates and sold it to photographers . However, his business collapsed when he had to replace dry plates which were destroyed. Afterwards, he used lighter and more flexible support than glass . More developments followed when he used the coat of photogrphic emulsion on paper and loaded it in a roll holder . He again changed the paper into a transparent roll film and roll holder and the first roll film camera was devised. Various advertisements of his work ensued. In 1888, the Kodak camera was formally introduced and his statement, Ã¢â¬Å"you press the button, we do the restÃ¢â¬ became a well- known phrase . His ingenuity has made the usually expensive photography available to all. Aside from that, George Eastman is known also as a philanthropist for giving away his fortune. One of his great contributions is the Rochester Institute of Technology . Bibliography George Eastman (2008) Kodak http://www. kodak. com/US/en/corp/kodakHistory/eastmanTheMan. shtml at 4 June See also studymoose.com/friendship-speech-essay
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Genetic Mutations Result In Faulty Proteins The DNA sequence codes for a particular gene which is then copied into a protein sequence code. Protein is found in every cell in human body and has a vital role in cell growth and tissue repair. The amino acids are the building blocks of proteins which are arranged in a specific order to determine the proteins shape and function. The incorrect amino acid sequence leads to harmful consequences because it can lead to the formation of faulty proteins which can cause disruption in metabolic and regulatory pathways which cause genetic disorders (1). Genetic mutation is a change in genomic sequence which encodes DNA. It can be either inherited or somatic mutation. Somatic mutations are introduced either during DNA replication or when the DNA repair process fails. Agents which damage DNA are frequent carcinogens. Most carcinogenic agents are mutagens. There are two classes of mutations caused by mutagens. The first class is spontaneous mutations caused by depurination, deamination and demethylation(3). The second class is induced mutations caused by ionizing radiation,chemical mutagens and ultra violet radiation(3). Mutation during DNA replication Before cell divides, cell duplicates its entire DNA sequence. To start DNA replication, the DNA helicase separates the DNA molecule into two strands. Then DNA polymerase copies each strand of DNA in order to create two double-stranded DNA molecules. Somatic mutation occurs when this DNA polymerase makes an error in copying which takes place once every 100,000,000 bases (4). Mutation effects Single base substitution: The consequences of single base substitution mutation depend on the location of the protein which can lead to either silent mutation, missense mutation or a non-sense mutation. Silent mutations are those which dont produce any change in an amino acid sequence of a protein. They occur in that region that either doesnt code for a protein or doesnt alter the final sequence of amino acid chain. For example GCA codon turns into GCG codon as in result of single nucleotide replacement because both GCA and GCG codons mean arginine in mRNA (8). Missense mutations involve a change in a single nucleotide to cause substitution of a different amino acid. This can result into a non-functional protein. Sickle cell anemia is an example of missense mutation where CTC in the DNA sense strand specifies glutamate residue get altered with GUG in the mRNA which results in a Valine residue in the protein causing sickle-cell anemia (8). Non-sense mutations are those which results in a premature stop codon leading to the formation of a non-functional protein. An example for non-sense mutation is a single nucleotide replacement from C to T in codon CAG which forms a stop codon TAG. This incorrect sequence causes the shortening of protein (8). Frameshift mutation: This mutation is the result of an insertion or a deletion of one or more nucleotides from the DNA sequence but not in multiples of three because bases in set of three forms a codon which provides the code for an amino acid sequence of the protein. So as DNA polymerase read the triplet nature of codon so an insertion or a deletion can disrupt its reading frame which results into a completely different translation done by the DNA polymerase (8+6). Chromosome mutation: Any change either in structure or arrangement of chromosomes is a chromosome mutation which frequently occurs in meiosis during crossing over. The different types of chromosome mutation are:- Translocation: In this mutation, a piece of one chromosome gets transferred to a non-homologous chromosome. For example when translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 takes place, an abnormal gene forms which codes for an abnormal faulty protein resulting the development of leukaemia (8). Inversion: During this mutation, a DNA region on a chromosome flips its orientation leading the formation of an abnormal gene which then codes for a faulty abnormal protein. Deletion: In this mutation, a chromosome section gets deleted which results in the loss of genes (6). Duplication: During this mutation, some genes get duplicate and get read twice by the DNA polymerase on the same chromosome resulting in the formation of a faulty abnormal protein (6). Non-disjunction: This is when chromosomes dont separate successfully to opposite poles at anaphase stage during meiosis which allows the presence of an extra chromosome in one of the daughter cells. Downs syndrome is an example of non-disjunction which occurs in chromosome 21 of a human egg cell (8). Removal of faulty proteins In eukaryotic cells, faulty proteins are recognized and degraded very rapidly in cells to prevent any harmful consequences. The two major faulty protein destruction pathways are:- Ubiquitin-proteasome pathway for faulty intracellular proteins: In the case of formation of faulty proteins which are defective get ejected into the proteasome from the endoplasmic reticulum through channels called retrotranslocons. Proteasome is a large multi-catalytic protein complex found in all eukaryotes which is located in nucleus and cytoplasm. It is responsible to degrade faulty intracellular proteins through proteolysis(2). The enzymes which carry out proteolysis are known as proteases. Those intracellular proteins which need to go under degradation get tagged with another small protein called ubiquitin(2). Ubiquitin binds to the amino group of the side chain of a lysine residue. This tagging process is catalyzed by ubiquitin ligase. Once the protein gets tagged,a signal gets released to other ligases allowing more ubiquitin molecules to attach to form a poly-ubiquitin chain. Poly-ubiquitin chain then bound by the 26s proteasome complex which leads to the degradation of tagged protein(7). Ubiquitin does get released which that can be reused in next cycle. However ATP is used for the attachment of ubiquitin and for the degradation of tagged proteins (5). Lysosomal proteolysis for faulty extracellular proteins: Lysosomes are membrane-enclosed cellular organelles in animals containing digestive enzymes and proteases. They have important roles in cell metabolism including the digestion of extracellular proteins taken up through endocytosis. So during this protein degradation pathway, the protein is uptaken by lysosomes through the formation of vesicles derived from endoplasmic reticulum called autophagosomes. Then these autophagosomes fuse with lysosomes so in result the digestive lysosomal enzymes digest their contents (5).
Friday, September 20, 2019
Native Son In Native Son, by Richard Wright, the main character is 20 year old Bigger Thomas. Growing up poor, uneducated, and angry at the whole world, it is almost obvious that Bigger is going to have a rough life. Anger, frustration, and violence are habits for him. He is an experienced criminal, and unable to handle with his wild mood swings, Bigger often explodes in fits of crazy, aggressive outrage. Bigger has grown up with the opinion that he simply has no control over his life. In his mind, he canÃ¢â¬â¢t ever be anything more than an unskilled, low-wage laborer. He is forced to take a job as a chauffeur for the Daltons to avoid having to watch his own family starve. Strangely, Mr. Dalton is Bigger's landlord; he owns most of the company that manages the apartment building where Bigger's family lives. Mr. Dalton and other wealthy real estate men are robbing the poor, black tenants on the South Side. What they do is refuse to rent apartments in other neighborhoods to black tenants. By doing this, they create an fake housing shortage on the South Side, and that causes high rents. Mr. Dalton likes to think of himself as a generous man just because he gives money to black schools and offers jobs to "poor, timid black boys" like Bigger. However, his generosity is only a way for him to get rid of the guilty conscience he has for cheating the poor black residents of Chicago. Mary Dalton, the daughter of Bigger's Mr. Dalton, angers Bigger when she ignores the "rules" of society when it comes to relationships between white women and black men. On his first day on the job, Bigger drives Mary out to meet her boyfriend, Jan. One thing leads to another, and all three of them get drunk. Mary is too drunk to make it to her bedroom on her own, so Bigger helps her up the stairs. Just as he places Mary on her bed, Mary's blind mother, Mrs. Dalton, enters the bedroom. Bigger is scared that Mary will give away that he is in the room, so he covers her face with a pillow and accidentally smothers her to death. Unaware that Mary is dead, Mrs. Dalton prays and then leaves the room. Bigger tries to cover his crime by burning Mary's body in the Daltons' furnace.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
1. Coal formation Coal was formed from remains of plants from several hundred millions years ago partially decomposed. These remains were settled in regions where waterlogged or swampy regions prevailed. These conditions avoid complete decomposition making possible the gradual peat formation. Peat is not considered coal actually, but is an essential step to coal formation. This formation process is called "coalification" and it is essentially a progressive change from peat to anthracite passing through different types of coals. This process not only depends on the time, but also on temperature and burial pressure (Speight 1983). Schematic representation of the coalification process (Speight 1983) 2. Coal Classification Coals can be classified by its "rank". The rank of the coal can be defined as the degree of alteration that coal experiments during the coalification. On the one hand there are Lignite and sub-bituminous coals which are Low rank coals. These have a lower content in Carbon, are lighter and have higher moisture levels. On the other hand there is Bituminous coals and Anthracite which are high rank coals. They have a higher content in carbon which means they have more energy content. They have lower moisture levels and a more vitreous appearance (University of Kentucky, 2012). Ã¢â¬Æ' 3. Coal Composition Coal is an organic sediment which can be described in several ways. The most common way is in terms of the elemental composition. J. G. Speight, (1991) suggested that coal can classified on the basis of the general formula: Cn Hm Nx Oy Sz (where n, m, x, y and z are number of atoms of each element) Coal is not a homogeneous material. It is heterogeneous and is contaminated by different types of impurities w... ...rcel Dekker Inc. Classification and Rank of Coal. University of Kentucky. (2012). [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.uky.edu/KGS/coal/coalkinds.htm. [Accessed 12 November 13]. Couch G. R, (1991). Advanced coal cleaning technology: IEA Coal Research. (IEACR/44) Vernon J.L, Jones T, (1993) Sulphur and Coal. London: IEA Coal Research (IEACR/57) Ryan, B, Ledda L, (1997). A review of sulphur in coal: with specific reference to the telkwa deposit, North-western british Columbia. Geological Fieldwork, Paper 1998, Pages 1-10 Morrison G. F, (1981). Chemical desulphurisation of coal: IEA Coal Research. (ICTIS/TR15) BlÃ ¡zquez B.L, Ballester A, GonzÃ ¡lez F, Mier J.L, (1991). DesulfuraciÃ ³n de Carbones, la biodesulfuraciÃ ³n como alternativa. MinerÃ a del CarbÃ ³n. Pages 40-49 Morrison G. F, (1982). Control of sulphur oxides from coal combustion: IEA Coal Research. (ICTIS/TR15)
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
For many, our goal is to reach the American Dream: a good job, a home we can call our own, and wealth. However, there are others who only dream of it because they are stuck in a hole that restricts them from reaching it. Charles Bowden, author of Ã¢â¬Å"BlueÃ¢â¬ , takes readers on a journal across the desert to get a better understanding on why people from Mexico risk their lives to cross to the United States. He provides detailed images and descriptions of Mexicans that have lost their lives trying to cross the desert. Along with his friend Bill, they travel across the desert and encounter danger with snakes, the effects of extreme weather conditions, and experiences thirst, hunger, and fatigue. In the beginning, Bowden Ã¢â¬Å"was sitting at [his] desk in September when a news story caught his eye: seven Mexicans had died of thirst east of Yuma and several more had been snake bittenÃ¢â¬ (Bowden). To his dismay, the incidents were not treated as important matters because they were from Mexico. What captives the author is that Mexicans are willing to risk their own lives to cross over to the United States. In trying to understand this notion, he begins an expedition through the desert and follows the paths Mexicans traveled and the situations they encountered. As their journey begins, they come in contact with a snake but manage to escape death. Soon after, they begin to experience the effects of harsh weather conditions. With heat Ã¢â¬Å"the body temperature soars and the brain seems to cook. The flesh feels electric with pain as each cell screams out its complaintÃ¢â¬ (Bowden). They finally reach the Republic of Mexico illegally where they meet up with an offic er. Unlike American officers, Mexican officers have a reputation of bending laws and instead of ticketing people, they often ask for money. Ending their journey, they have learned more of what it feels to be a Mexican traveling the desert. Bowden has also decided to write this story about his experiences to give readers an insight on what happens to people who are willing to risk their lives to live the American Dream.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Discuss how the following stories from the gothic tradition create suspense and which is the more successful? Essay
The short story is an ideal form for writers who want to create a sense of terror or horror. Discuss how the following stories from the gothic tradition create suspense and which is the more successful? The first gothic Novel was written by Horace Walpole and was called Ã¢â¬ËThe Castle of Otrando.Ã¢â¬â¢ It was written in 1764 and after this gothic literacy exploded and became very popular. The imaginative stories often lacked any real worth but were published world wide to satisfy the public. They were bought by a lot of young women. The excitement and fantasy of the stories added interest to the otherwise boring lives of these Victorian women. The main features of Gothic stories are ruined buildings and graveyards, a foreign setting, a solitary character, a persecuted heroine, mysterious disappearances and supernatural occurrences, insanity, sexuality, pathetic fallacy, exaggerating language, multiple narrators and a use of horror or horror. Stories usually contain quite a few of these but not all of them. These ideas were wild and exotic to the Victorian people. Many had never travelled abroad and insanity was a major fear during these times. Gothic short stories use horror or horror to frighten the audience and keep them reading. Horror and horror are both related to fright but they are different things. Horror is more a build up of fear and usually only hints at alarming things and lets you imagination do the rest until you are terrified of what is going to happen. Horror is about what you have seen and can relate to a past experience you have seen. Horror is more shocking and is what you can see at that moment. Both lead to a different effect in gothic short stories. The first of the stories I am considering is Ã¢â¬ËThe MadmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Manuscript,Ã¢â¬â¢ by Charles Dickens. The story is written in the form of an embedded narrative. The man, Mr Pickman, cannot sleep and he reads the tale of a madman in an asylum. The horror of the story already begins to build as the Ã¢â¬Ëstrange handwriting,Ã¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ësoiled and blotted,Ã¢â¬â¢ paper is described. This gives you a sense that there is something not right about this man. Mr Pickmans fear is obvious as the title Ã¢â¬Ëgave him a sudden start.Ã¢â¬â¢ During the Victorian ages, when this story was written, people had a fascination with insanity as there was no cure and it was dangerous and unpredictable. This story takes advantage of the fear. The manuscript becomes hysterical and this plays on the idea of insanity making you lose control. The opening word,Ã¢â¬â¢ yes- a madmanÃ¢â¬â¢s!Ã¢â¬â¢ builds the horror as you are aware of this mans condition. The words in the first paragraph, like Ã¢â¬Ëroused the horror,Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Ëblood hissing and tingling through my veins,Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Ëmy knees knocked together with fright,Ã¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëthe glare of a madmanÃ¢â¬â¢s eye,Ã¢â¬â¢ emphasise the tone and describe the madmanÃ¢â¬â¢s fear of insanity and increase the tension as you begin to feel his fright. The tone of the story changes as in the second paragraph, as the manÃ¢â¬â¢s past is described. He is from a family of insanity and he fears throughout his lie that he shall also become insane. Ã¢â¬ËI knew that madness was mixed up with my very blood, and the marrow of my bones.Ã¢â¬â¢ Words like Ã¢â¬Ëcowered, screamed and crouched,Ã¢â¬â¢ help you experience this mans visions and fears and increase the tension as you realize he is turning mad and it is only a matter of time. As the dreaded madness finally comes upon our main character, the tone changes again as the madman is happy about his freedom from the fear, Ã¢â¬Ëat last it came upon me, and I wondered how I could ever have feared it.Ã¢â¬â¢ He describes how happy his life is as he hides his insanity and enjoys life. He fears his friends finding out his secret but finds it amusing Ã¢â¬Ëto think how pale he (his friend) would have turned, and how fast he would have run, if he had known that the dear friendÃ¢â¬ ¦ was a madman with all the power.Ã¢â¬â¢ The madman felt in control of his life at this point and Ã¢â¬Ëit was a merry life!Ã¢â¬â¢ He becomes rich and continues to hide his insanity from the world as he wishes to marry a beautiful young woman. He is not pleased with the fact that the girl, who he marries, does not love him and wishes to be with another man, she is typical of a gothic story as she is beautiful, helpless and persecuted but as we are not really given any ideas of her character or her name, it is hard to sympathise with her. When the madman discovers his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s true feelings his is driven to pity Ã¢â¬Ëthe wretched life to which her cold and selfish relations had doomed her,Ã¢â¬â¢ and we begin to fear for the girl as he talks about her death. He fears her giving birth Ã¢â¬Ëto some ill-fated being, destined to hand down madness to its offspring.Ã¢â¬â¢ The final line of this paragraph shocks us as he Ã¢â¬Ëresolved to kill her.Ã¢â¬â¢ He talks about the many ways in which he wants to kill his wife and we fear for her safety and the viciousness of the madman as he discussed the many cruel ways of killing her like poison, drowning or fire. The attempted killing of the girl is described in great detail as it builds the horror and tension of the scene. The man is also cunning as when she awakes and begins to scream he hides his insanity and instead lets the house believe it is she who is mad. The horror increases in the story as the mans insanity increases and he goes Ã¢â¬Ëinto the open fieldsÃ¢â¬ ¦ and laughed till the air resounded with my shouts.Ã¢â¬â¢ The girl dies the next day and he pretends to mourn his loss even though he had killed her. The man becomes restless and he Ã¢â¬Ëfelt that before long my secret must be known.Ã¢â¬â¢ The horror of what he will do next returns. This is increased as he describes his struggle as, Ã¢â¬ËI ground my teeth, and struck my feet upon the floor, and drove my nails into my hands. I kept it down.Ã¢â¬â¢ When the manÃ¢â¬â¢s brother-in-law visits him and he kills him, his secret is found out and the man is locked up in an asylum. The description of the Ã¢â¬Ëgrey cell where the sunlight seldom comes,Ã¢â¬â¢ adds to the horror of the story as the place is described as a prison and many people would fear turning mad like this man and ending up in this horrible place. The note at the end speaks about how perhaps the man was driven mad by the fear of insanity, rather than it being inherited. The sensationalist language throughout the piece adds to the horror as the situation is exaggerated and seems worse than it is. The second story is Ã¢â¬ËStrange Events in the Life of Schalken the Painter,Ã¢â¬â¢ by J.S. Le Fanu. This story focuses more on terror as we do not discover what happens to our heroine during her marriage. The foreign setting of Holland made the story more exciting to the Victorian readers as this was a strange, exotic place where they had never been. The story is again set in the embedded narrative. The narrator heard the story of Schalken after he saw a painting by him in the house of Captain Vandal, a man he once visited. The story is told to the man by the Captain. Schalken is a young man working for Gerard Douw. He worked hard for his master as he was in love with DouwÃ¢â¬â¢s niece, Rose Velderkaust. Schalken was Ã¢â¬Ëa poor man,Ã¢â¬â¢ and his love for Rose makes us feel sympathy for him. He works hard for her and we want him to be rewarded for his hard work with her hand in marriage. The scene is set for the arrival of the mysterious stranger. The silence and darkness gives an eerie and sinister atmosphere. The Ã¢â¬Ëshort, sudden laugh,Ã¢â¬â¢ breaks this atmosphere and the terror at what it could be builds. The dark description of the mysterious man and the fact that the manÃ¢â¬â¢s face is not seen makes the man peculiar and we wonder who he could be. As the man disappears and cannot be seen walking away from the building, it is suggested that this man could be supernatural. When the man reappears the next day, his strange image is continued. He gives Schalken some jewellery to be valued and his wealth is shown. He asks Douw if he can have RoseÃ¢â¬â¢s hand in marriage and the painter accepts. The stranger keeps his face hidden and words like Ã¢â¬Ëmysterious,Ã¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëunexpected,Ã¢â¬â¢ build terror as we donÃ¢â¬â¢t know who this man is. When we finally hear the description of the man, it is gruesome. His face is Ã¢â¬Ëcoloured with the bluish leaden hue,Ã¢â¬â¢ and he has Ã¢â¬Ëtwo lone, discoloured fangs.Ã¢â¬â¢ This gives us the impression he is a vampire and there is something paranormal about him. RoseÃ¢â¬â¢s shock and fright at the man adds to the terror as the reader knows she must marry him. Rose is forced to marry the cruel and ugly man. She then seems to disappear and although Gerard Douw tries to search for her and her husband, he cannot find them. The mystery of this adds to the terror of the story. One night Rose rushes into the room and her typical gothic heroine image is gone. She is no longer beautiful and virginal but Ã¢â¬Ëwild and haggard.Ã¢â¬â¢ er The The shock of Douw and Shalken is obvious and we are terrified at the state of the girl. She is described in a way that makes her seem almost insane, which would petrify the Victorian public. She demands not to be left alone and says Ã¢â¬ËI am lost forever if you do!Ã¢â¬â¢ The almost supernatural occurrence if a shadowy figure adds to the terror as you are unsure why the girl is in a panic and what is happening. When the clergyman arrives he is unsympathetic and you fear all hope is lost for the girl. As Douw leaves to get another candle the girl screams for him not to leave but it is too late. The door swings shut and they could not get it open again. The girl shrieks. This story is more terrifying than Ã¢â¬ËThe MadmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Manuscript,Ã¢â¬â¢ as there is no description of the girlÃ¢â¬â¢s death and you are left to imagine what is happening to her. The shrieks stop and a Ã¢â¬Ëlight step is heard crossing the floor, as if from the bed to the window,Ã¢â¬â¢ and we think perhaps Rose has escaped but Ã¢â¬Ëno trace of Rose was ever found.Ã¢â¬â¢ The mystery of her death leaves you wondering where she is and if she survived. The final part of the story is set years ahead of the rest of the story and we are given the sense that Schalken never forgot Rose. Schalken has a vision about Rose and her husband and it again we feel there is something supernatural about the story. There are no explanations given for the disappearance or his vision and it lets you imagine what you think has happened. Both stories create tension and suspense. Ã¢â¬ËThe MadmanÃ¢â¬â¢s manuscript,Ã¢â¬â¢ creates horror and is more visual than Ã¢â¬ËStrange events in the life of Schalken the Painter,Ã¢â¬â¢ but it is not successful in maintaining suspense. The story is very extravagant and it is difficult to sympathise with the characters. The suspense is built up in Ã¢â¬ËStrange events in the life of Schalken the Painter,Ã¢â¬â¢ as it is mysterious with strange characters and Schalken, the hero with whom we can easily sympathise. The sense of something supernatural makes the story seem even more exotic and unrealistic and the use of terror makes the story more enjoyable, in my opinion, as you use your imagination to think about what has happened to the characters. For these reasons, I feel Ã¢â¬ËStrange events in the life of Schalken the Painter,Ã¢â¬â¢ uses terror better than Ã¢â¬ËThe MadmanÃ¢â¬â¢s manuscript.Ã¢â¬â¢
Monday, September 16, 2019
Introduction: Imagine being an artist in Florence during the 1400-1500Ã¢â¬â¢s. The city would be a lively place bursting with numerous aspiring artists. Of the young men learning their trade as best as possible, most will not achieve centuries of notoriety. The ones that do earn the honor of being remembered today all had a common theme; wealthy patrons, including wealthy individuals, guilds and the church. Throughout the Italian Renaissance, the artists who achieved the most success were the artists who acquired the most notable patrons.Probably the most famous of these patrons were the MediciÃ¢â¬â¢s and, like other patrons, they were rich and powerful. The power did not always come directly from running the government, but because they had enough financial influence over the people in the Florentine government they indirectly influenced how the area was run. This influence means they had connections with the most important people of their day, important people who would also cr eate commissions for the artists. Powerful families were not only financially secure, but had excess money to spend on expensive items such as bronze sculptures.For the patrons it was all about showing off what they could afford to other wealthy families. Wealthy families influenced the arts because they wanted to show off, it was politically wise, and they actually appreciated the arts. These reasons lead to a profound impact upon the patron-artist relationship and the art produced during the Italian Renaissance period. Patronage To Flaunt The MediciÃ¢â¬â¢s were a highly affluent family and they desired to show off their excess wealth. Basically, they wanted to flaunt their wealth.Once the more expensive things in life, such fancy clothes are bought and a fancy party provided for all the friends, what else is there to do with such an excess of money? Becoming a patron of the arts was not always in association with a love of art, but because the people who could afford it wanted t o show off their wealth and prestige. One of the very best ways to do this was to purchase extravagant and expensive artwork, because it is long lasting and highly visual. One example of prestige is the tabernacle for the Church of the Annunziara in Florence.It was commissioned by Piero dÃ¢â¬â¢Medici and the inscription states that the marble alone costs 4000 florins. (Burke, p 98) Another proof this reason for patronage was so common is the statement, Ã¢â¬Å"the majority of the types of commission just referred to were determined by the taste and outlook of the upper middle class. Ã¢â¬ (Antal, p134) Many other sources assert the same exact thing. Most commissions were done according to the taste of the upper middle class because they were the people competing with one another to have the most extraordinary art.It is easy to invite people over and show the art to them or conveniently place artworks in public places to feature to clients and coworkers. This is a social practice widely used today and was in no way different during the Italian Renaissance. Political Scheming A wealthy person might support the arts based on politic scheming. If the wealth holder is a patron of the arts, then it shows he respects the talents of other men and is willing to support those other men. To quote Machiavelli, Ã¢â¬Å"A prince ought to show himself a lover of ability, giving employment to able men and honoring those who excel in a particular field. (Burke, p99) For someone with political aspirations, living this type of life would prove to political supporters how aware he or she is of other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities. And when someone supports those abilities as just a regular member of society, that support will likely increase as the person rises in power and wealth. The MediciÃ¢â¬â¢s exemplified this by the amount of art they increasingly commissioned as they increased in wealth and climbed their way to control over Florence. An example of political scheming is Bot ticelliÃ¢â¬â¢s Adoration of the Magi.It was commissioned by Guasparre di Zanobi del Lama, to be an alter piece for a chapel in the Santa Maria Novella. Traditionally, paintings of the magi are painted to pay religious homage to Christ, and the Magi who travelled to see him. In this particular version, Botticelli paints likenesses of the Medici into the people including depicting Cosimo deÃ¢â¬â¢Medici as the Magi kneeling before Jesus. It is believed that the he painted such a powerful family into the painting because of his patronÃ¢â¬â¢s desires. Guasparre del Lama wanted the Medici painted as the prominent characters to show his respect for the powerful family.People rarely show such a public display of adoration for a politically powerful family without having personal, underlying political motives. Ultimately, this man used his influence on the arts as a method of getting attention from the Medici family. (Ã¢â¬Å"Analysis: BotticelliÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Adoration of the MagiÃ¢â ¬ Ã¢â¬ 2010) Positive Patron-Artist Relationships When the artists developed a positive relationship with the patron, it proved highly beneficial for the individual artists. These benefits were primarily financial, including the potential for more work from the same patron.This can be seen many times over, including the example of Raphael with Pope Julius II. If the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s work pleased the patron, they would be likely to higher the same artist for more art, which would in turn lead to a stable income for the artist. In order to please the patron, the artist had to follow their specifications. Raphael completed many masterpieces for the Pope, including 3 frescoes in the Vatican. These pieces are proof that in order to please the Pope, Raphael had to incorporate him into the art.One source explained the School of Athens and the Disputa as the earthly and celestial wisdom of Julius II, while the Parnussus shows the beauty of creativity. The Expulsion of Heliodorus from th e Temple symbolizes the expulsion of the French and the subjugation of all the churchÃ¢â¬â¢s enemies, with Julius II depicted witnessing the scene from his portable throne. In the Uffizi gallery in Florence there is a fresco completed by Raphael, showing the Pope as a resigned, pensive old man instead of a victorious Moses springing to his feet, as Michelangelo portrayed him.What the artist wanted in his paintings was irrelevant compared with the need to please the patron and continue acquiring commissions. (Barnett 2007) Not all artist-patron relationships were entirely business oriented. For proof of this more positive impact, it requires a look at Michelangelo and Lorenzo deÃ¢â¬â¢Medici. Unlike Raphael and Pope Julius II, MichelangeloÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with Lorenzo Medici was much deeper. They were as close, if not closer than many fathers and sons.Michelangelo lived with the MediciÃ¢â¬â¢s for two years as a teenager because Lorenzo saw his talent and invited him to liv e at the Medici palace and study art while he was there. Lorenzo greatly appreciated his talents and was a constant source of encouragement to the young Michelangelo. There was a tradition in the Medici household, that the most prominent people were allowed to sit down first, and Michelangelo was allowed to sit before LorenzoÃ¢â¬â¢s own son. Michelangelo returned the favor by carving the impressive marble relief, The Battle of the Centaurs for Lorenzo.Because of the bond the two shared, it did not come as a surprise to anyone that he went into a temporary depression upon LorenzoÃ¢â¬â¢s death. Artists developing positive relationships with their patrons that heavily impacted their personal lives as well as their careers were rare for the time, but did occur on occasion and had an extended influence on their entire lives. Networking through Patronage Another major benefit that occurred from pleasing the patron was the networking. When the patron liked an artist, and another wealth y friend wanted to commission a piece of art, they would recommend the artist they liked most.Most often, when the need for an artist was announced, the artists interested would begin pestering the patron. A letter would achieve the pestering if the artist was not currently in the same city. This constant bothering involved the artists convincing their wealthy connections to encourage the patron to select them or reminding the patron of the positives concerning their working relationship. In these cases, the patron would pick the artist based upon their own personal working relationship with the artist.In 1474, news spread in Milan that the Duke wanted a chapel in Pavia to be painted. The dukeÃ¢â¬â¢s agent is recorded as complaining that all the painters, Ã¢â¬Å"good and badÃ¢â¬ were bothering him about becoming the artist for the chapel. (Burke, 101-102) Trouble often arose concerning the contract between the patron and artist over what had to be done, how it was to be done, w hen it would be done and how much it would cost. One well-known example requires looking at MichelangeloÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences with Pope Julius II.The strain between the two was constant and caused many complications. In order to get Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel, Julius II had to first convince him to return to Rome. Something Michelangelo did with the assumption that pleasing the Pope would allow him to start working on the tomb again. How they agreed on what exactly was depicted in the Chapel does not have any specific source in the contracts, but most art historians would agree that it was a source of contention initially between the two obstinate men.And as the work progressed, Pope Julius II would show up and create new tension by telling Michelangelo to work faster. Despite the constant struggles, the Sistine Chapel was completed, which is not true for every patron-artist relationship gone south. The relationship between the patron and artist could easily become str ained resulting in frustration, unfinished works and a bad experience. But like the Pope, other wealthy families usually still commissioned paintings and sculptures because they enjoyed owning them. Even if working with an artist could be stressful.Artists would in turn continue to complete works commissioned from frustrating patrons because they provided a continuous livelihood. (King, 2003) Other Patronage Topics Another question brought to mind by the Sistine Chapel is whether great art would exist if the patron was not there to fund the art and to push the artist. Not all patrons were quite as pushy as Pope Julius II, but all patrons had some kind of say in how the paintings and sculptures were created. Proof of this is found in the surviving contracts from this time period.Without these contractual agreements and without the constant bothering from the patrons, many artworks would probably never have been completed. Due to the artist getting distracted by other work or simply n ot being interested in that particular piece anymore. A type of art that has not yet been discussed yet is architecture. Patrons who commissioned buildings were typically guilds or major groups in society, instead of individuals. But these types of patrons also had major influences on the architects. BrunelleschiÃ¢â¬â¢s Dome focuses on a major example of how the architects were influential.These guild patrons often helped competitions to decide who got the work instead of just going and picking someone. In the book, Brunelleschi was the main focus, but other people were brought up, such as the people he worked with and competed against. Prestige is the main factor behind competition, and competing against people who are already well known would have been difficult, so for Brunelleschi to compete anyway must have required a high amount of confidence. Especially after the rivalry between Brunelleschi and Ghiberti sparked by the gates of paradise ompetition lead Brunelleschi to focus on architecture instead of goldsmith artwork. Meaning the challenge of capping Santa Maria del Fiore must have appealed to him so greatly; that he did not care whom else he competed against. Its very pleasing that he gets the ultimate victory of the Dome, because that is the main architectural aspect of Florence and the baptistery doors exist in the shadows of his masterpiece. This method of earning a commission fueled rivalries and competition, which added to the competitive nature of art during the Italian Renaissance.This competitive nature in turn created the best work possible from each artist. When recognized for winning a competition, the artist would achieve high levels of fame that could make a career noteworthy. (King, 2000) Conclusion: Those with wealth affect everything because they are the ones with power. Art did not manage to escape that, especially throughout the Italian Renaissance. The motivation for each patron varied from political reasons, to the purpose of per sonal enjoyment, to the desire of flaunting to others.Sometimes their impacts limited the artists, other times they helped the artist become better skilled and more notable. Either way, the relationship between the patrons and the artists heavily influenced the final artistic product. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â [ 1 ]. Burke, Peter. The Italian Renaissance: culture and society in Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999. [ 3 ]. Pluribus One Consulting, LLC, Ã¢â¬Å"Analysis: BotticelliÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Adoration of the MagiÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬ Last modified 2010. Accessed November 16, 2012. ttp://pluribusone. wordpress. com/2010/09 [ 4 ]. Barnett, Peter. iartid, Ã¢â¬Å"Art in History. Ã¢â¬ Last modified 2007. Accessed November 16, 2012. http://artid. com/members/art_in_history/blog/post/164-famous-patrons-and-their-influence-pope-julius-ii. [ 5 ]. Burke, Peter. The Italian Renaissance : culture and society in Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999. [ 6 ]. King, Ross. Michelangelo and the Pope's Ceiling. New York: Walker Publishing Company, Inc. , 2003 [ 7 ]. King, Ross. Brunelleschi's Dome. New York: Penguin Books, 2000.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
I had seen the movie American Beauty when it was first released, however it was a different experience for me this time. I was closely examining the interpersonal conflict in the movie. The movie is based around the Burnham family. Lester and Carolyn are husband and wife, and they have a teenage daugther, Janie. On the outside they appear to be a normal family. As the movie plays, it is obvious the characters are all a negative result of interpersonal conflict. Ã¢â¬Å"Conflict is a critical event in the course of a relationship. Conflict can cause resentment, hostility and perhaps the ending of the relatonshipÃ¢â¬ (DonnaBellafiore). Carolyn is extremely self-centered and demanding. She controls the family with her underlying anger. Lester is a shell of a man. His self-concept is very low and he is depressed. This undoubtedly due to his lack of communication with his wife. Ã¢â¬Å"Self-concept is the idea you have of who you are and what makes you different from everyone elseÃ¢â¬ ( Sole,K). In part of the movie he realizes he has lost something, but he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know what. He has lost his self-esteem due his interpersonal conflict with his wife and daughter. In one scene Carolyn and Lester have arrived at a party Lester doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to attend. Carolyn tells him to act happy, but sadly she never wonders why he is not happy. In another scene the family is at the dinner table. Carolyn is talking about her day and Lester informs her that he has quit his job. She mocks him for doing so and tries to get Janie into the conversation. Lester becomes extremely angry, and they begin to blame each other for their lack of communication. Their behaviors not only affect their relationship negatively, but has weakened the relationship they have with Janie. Carolyn handles her conflict by having an affair rather than communicating her frustrations with her husband, Lester. Lester black-mails his boss, quits his job and demands a years pay and benefits. This is one way that Lester handles his anger. Janie and her relationship with her parents, especially her father, continues to deteriorate. Janie becomes emotionaly involved with the new neighbor a nd school-mate Ricky. When JanieÃ¢â¬â¢s friend Angela, comes over to visit, her father always gets excited and flirts with her. This upsets Janie, but Angela likes it. Angela tells Janie Lesters attraction to her makes her realize she has potential to be a model. Angela shows no empathy for JanieÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings of negativity towards her father. Ã¢â¬Å"Empathy is the action of understanding, being aware of, being sensitive to, and vicariously experiencing the feelings, thoughts and experience of anotherÃ¢â¬ (merrriam-websterdictionary). As a result of his attraction to Angela, Lester begins working out. He begins to feel better about himself as a result of getting in shape. There is a scene in the movie where Lester sits on the sofa next to his wife, Carolyn. He begins softly speaking to her and useing non-verbal cues reminding her of how much fun she was when they were younger. She begins to smile, and for a moment you believe they are going to be kind to each other. instead, Carolyn jumps up and freaks out because Lester almost spilled his beer on the sofa. Lester becomes angry as he tries to explain to her that her material things mean more to her than living. The moment of kindness between them is over-destroyed by Carolyns confusion with her priorities and her need to be in control. It is always about her. As Janie becomes more angry with her father, she befriends her neighbor, Ricky Fitz. Ricky is forth-coming and confident. However, he has been physicaly and verbaly abused by his father. Mr. Fitz is an ex-marine. When he introduces himself to people he always says Ã¢â¬Å"Frank Fitz Cornel in the Marine CorpsÃ¢â¬ (SamMendes, producer,1999,AmericanBeauty). He has a need for people to see him as a strong man, having been a Marine. This is his great accomplishment in life. he has beaten Ricky and verbaly abused him, and sent him away for 2 years as a result of Ricky severely beating a boy, most likely a reaction to his anger towards his father. Franks wife, RickyÃ¢â¬â¢s Mom, is emotionless. She has no self-concept due to Franks personality, anger and overpowerment. Their house is a cold environment. There is no normal communication between the three of them. There is a scene where Frank and Ricky meet the neighbors-JIm and JIm. They are a gay couple who have just moved into the neighborhood . Frank freaks out about the couple. His reaction shows that he is homophobic by his negative comments. Ricky agrees with his father in an effort to keep the situaton stable. Ricky is trying to avoid a beating. Ricky and Janie are building a relationship and becoming close. Ricky has also built a relationshio with Lester. He sells Lester Marijuana . Ricky goes to LesterÃ¢â¬â¢s house to sell him marijuana one particular night. Frank can see Ricky and lester through the window. Frank thinks what he is seeing is Ricky having oral sex with Lester. He beats Ricky when he comes home. Ricky runs to Janie and asks her to run away with him, s he agrees. At the end of the movie, Lester is in the garage. Frank approaches him, as he walks through the pouring rain. He has an expression of pain and fear on his face. Lester approaches Lester (thinking lester is gay) and wraps his arms around him in a hug. Lester tries to be comforting, but then Lester tries to kiss him. Lester pulls back expressing to Frank that there must be some kind of understanding. Lester is not a gay man. Frank walks away with tears in his eyes. Ricky and Janie are up in her room planning their departure, and Carolyn is on her way home. She has been taking shooting lessons and carrys a gun in her glove compartment. Suddenly a gun shot is heard. Carolyn has justed pulled into the driveway, we wonder was it her who killed Lester? Jamie and Ricky find Lester shot in the head. Frank Fitz has shot Lester. He would rather have him dead than risk sharing Franks secret with anyone. Frank was a gay man. He spent his entire life covering up this reality, and in the process destroyed his wife and abused his child. After shooting Lester, Frank goes home to his room filled with guns and military memorabilia, and shoots himself. The families in this movie had such poor interpersonal communication that they destroyed each other. It was a schock for me to see such a lack of communication cause such destruction.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
THE THING THAT REALLY SUCKS about being psychically linked to someone is that you have a pretty good idea when they're lyingÃ¢â¬âor, in this case, not lying. Still, my response was immediate and instinctive. Ã¢â¬Å"That's not true.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Isn't it?Ã¢â¬ She gave me a pointed look. She too knew that I could feel the truth in her words. Ã¢â¬Å"But thatÃ¢â¬ ¦ it can'tÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ I wasn't at a loss for words very oftenÃ¢â¬âand certainly not with Lissa. So frequently in our relationship, I'd been the one being assertive and explaining to her why things had to be the way they were. Somewhere along the way, with me not realizing it, Lissa had lost that fragility. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm sorry,Ã¢â¬ she said, voice still kind but also firm. The bond betrayed how much she hated telling me unpleasant things. Ã¢â¬Å"He asked meÃ¢â¬ ¦ told me specifically not to let you come. That he doesn't want to see you.Ã¢â¬ I stared at her pleadingly, my voice almost childlike. Ã¢â¬Å"But why? Why would he say that? Of course he wants to see me. He must be confusedÃ¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I don't know, Rose. All I know is what he told me. I'm so sorry.Ã¢â¬ She reached for me like she might hug me, but I stepped away. My head was still reeling. Ã¢â¬Å"I'll go with you anyway. I'll wait upstairs with the other guardians. Then, when you tell Dimitri I'm there, he'll change his mind.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I don't think you should,Ã¢â¬ she said. Ã¢â¬Å"He seemed really serious about you not comingÃ¢â¬âalmost frantic. I think knowing you're there would upset him.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Upset him? Upset him? Liss, it's me! He loves me. He needs me.Ã¢â¬ She winced, and I realized I'd been shouting at her. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm just going on what he said. It's all so confusingÃ¢â¬ ¦ please. Don't put me in this position. JustÃ¢â¬ ¦ wait and see what happens. And if you want to know what's going on, you can alwaysÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Lissa didn't finish, but I knew what she was suggesting. She was offering to let me see her meeting with Dimitri through the bond. It was a big gesture on her partÃ¢â¬ânot that she could have stopped me if I wanted to do it. Still, she didn't usually like the idea of being Ã¢â¬Å"spiedÃ¢â¬ on. This was the best thing she could think of to make me feel better. Not that it really did. All of this was still crazy. Me being denied access to Dimitri. Dimitri allegedly not wanting to see me! What the hell? My gut reaction was to ignore everything she'd just said and go along with her, demanding access when she arrived. The feelings in the bond were begging me not to, though. She didn't want to create trouble. She might not understand Dimitri's wishes either, but she felt they should be honored until the situation could be better assessed. Ã¢â¬Å"Please,Ã¢â¬ she said. The plaintive word finally cracked me. Ã¢â¬Å"Okay.Ã¢â¬ It killed me to say it. It was like admitting defeat. Think of it as a tactical retreat. Ã¢â¬Å"Thank you.Ã¢â¬ This time she did hug me. Ã¢â¬Å"I swear I'll get more information and figure out what's going on, okay?Ã¢â¬ I nodded, still dejected, and we walked out of the building together. With grim reluctance, I parted with her when the time came, letting her go off to the guardians' building while I headed toward my room. As soon as she was out of my sight, I immediately slipped into her head, watching through her eyes as she walked through the perfectly manicured grass. The bond was still a little hazy but growing clearer by the minute. Her feelings were a jumble. She felt bad for me, guilty that she'd had to refuse me. At the same time, she was anxious to visit Dimitri. She needed to see him tooÃ¢â¬âbut not in the same way I did. She still had that feeling of responsibility for him, that burning urge to protect him. When she arrived at the building's main office, the guardian who'd stopped me gave her a nod of greeting and then made a quick phone call. A few moments later, three guardians entered and gestured for Lissa to follow them into the depths of the building. They all looked unusually grim, even for guardians. Ã¢â¬Å"You don't have to do this,Ã¢â¬ one of them told her. Ã¢â¬Å"Just because he keeps askingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It's fine,Ã¢â¬ she said with the cool, dignified air of any royal. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't mind.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"There'll be plenty of guards around just like last time. You don't need to worry about your safety.Ã¢â¬ She gave all of them a sharp look. Ã¢â¬Å"I was never worried about it to begin with.Ã¢â¬ Their descent into the building's lower levels brought back painful memories of when Dimitri and I had visited Victor. That had been the Dimitri I'd had a perfect union with, the Dimitri who understood me entirely. And after the visit, he'd been enraged at Victor's threats against me. Dimitri had loved me so much that he'd been willing to do anything to protect me. A key card-protected door finally allowed access to the holding level, which consisted mostly of a long hallway lined with cells. It didn't have the depressing feel that Tarasov had had, but this place's stark and steel-lined industrial air didn't exactly inspire warm and fuzzy feelings. Lissa could hardly walk down the hall because it was so crowded with guardians. All that security for one person. It wasn't impossible for a Strigoi to break through a cell's steel bars, but Dimitri was no Strigoi. Why couldn't they see that? Were they blind? Lissa and her escort made their way through the crowd and came to a stop in front of his cell. It was as cold looking as everything else in this prison area, with no more furnishings than were absolutely required. Dimitri sat on the narrow bed, his legs drawn up to him as he leaned into a corner of the wall and kept his back to the cell's entrance. It wasn't what I had expected. Why wasn't he beating at the bars? Why wasn't he demanding to be released and telling them he wasn't a Strigoi? Why was he taking this so quietly? Ã¢â¬Å"Dimitri.Ã¢â¬ Lissa's voice was soft and gentle, filled with a warmth that stood out against the harshness of the cell. It was the voice of an angel. And as Dimitri slowly turned around, it was obvious he thought so too. His expression transformed before our eyes, going from bleakness to wonder. He wasn't the only one filled with wonder. My mind might have been tied to Lissa's, but back across Court, my own body nearly stopped breathing. The glimpse I'd gotten of him last night had been amazing. But thisÃ¢â¬ ¦ this full-on view of him looking at LissaÃ¢â¬âat meÃ¢â¬âwas awe-inspiring. It was a wonder. A gift. A miracle. Seriously. How could anyone think he was a Strigoi? And how could I have possibly let myself believe the Dimitri I'd been with in Siberia was this one? He'd cleaned up from the battle and wore jeans and a simple black T-shirt. His brown hair was tied back into a short ponytail, and a faint shadow across his lower face showed that he needed to shave. Probably no one would let him get near a razor. Regardless, it almost made him look sexierÃ¢â¬âmore real, more dhampir. More alive. His eyes were what really pulled it all together. His death white skinÃ¢â¬ânow goneÃ¢â¬âhad always been startling, but those red eyes had been the worst. Now they were perfect. Exactly as they used to be. Warm and brown and long-lashed. I could have gazed at them forever. Ã¢â¬Å"Vasilisa,Ã¢â¬ he breathed. The sound of his voice made my chest tighten. God, I'd missed hearing him speak. Ã¢â¬Å"You came back.Ã¢â¬ As soon as he began approaching the bars, the guardians around Lissa started closing rank, ready to stop him should he indeed bust through. Ã¢â¬Å"Back off!Ã¢â¬ she snapped in a queenly tone, glaring at everyone around her. Ã¢â¬Å"Give us some space.Ã¢â¬ No one reacted right away, and she put more power into her voice. Ã¢â¬Å"I mean it! Step back!Ã¢â¬ I felt the slightest trickle of magic through our link. It wasn't a huge amount, but she was backing her words with a little spirit-induced compulsion. She could hardly control such a large group, but the command had enough force to make them clear out a little and create space between her and Dimitri. She turned her attention back to him, demeanor instantly changing from fierce to kind. Ã¢â¬Å"Of course I came back. How are you? Are theyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ She cast a dangerous look at the guardians in the hall. Ã¢â¬Å"Are they treating you okay?Ã¢â¬ He shrugged. Ã¢â¬Å"Fine. Nobody's hurting me.Ã¢â¬ If he was anything like his old self, he would have never admitted if anyone was hurting him. Ã¢â¬Å"Just a lot of questions. So many questions.Ã¢â¬ He sounded weary, againÃ¢â¬ ¦ very unlike a Strigoi who never needed rest. Ã¢â¬Å"And my eyes. They keep wanting to examine my eyes.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But how do you feel?Ã¢â¬ she asked. Ã¢â¬Å"In your mind? In your heart?Ã¢â¬ If the whole situation hadn't been so sobering, I would have been amused. It was very much a therapist's line of questioningÃ¢â¬âsomething both Lissa and I had experienced a lot of. I'd hated being asked those questions, but now I truly wanted to know how Dimitri felt. His gaze, which had so intently focused on her, now drifted away and grew unfocused. Ã¢â¬Å"It'sÃ¢â¬ ¦ it's hard to describe. It's like I've woken up from a dream. A nightmare. Like I've been watching someone else act through my bodyÃ¢â¬âlike I was at a movie or a play. But it wasn't someone else. It was me. All of it was me, and now here I am, and the whole world has shifted. I feel like I'm relearning everything.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It'll pass. You'll get more used to it, once you settle back into your old self.Ã¢â¬ That was a guess on her part, but one she felt confident of. He inclined his head toward the gathered guardians. Ã¢â¬Å"They don't think so.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"They will,Ã¢â¬ she said adamantly. Ã¢â¬Å"We just need more time.Ã¢â¬ A small silence fell, and Lissa hesitated before speaking her next words. Ã¢â¬Å"RoseÃ¢â¬ ¦ wants to see you.Ã¢â¬ Dimitri's dreamy, morose attitude snapped in a heartbeat. His eyes focused back on Lissa, and I got my first glimpse of true, intense emotion from him. Ã¢â¬Å"No. Anyone but her. I can't see her. Don't let her come here. Please.Ã¢â¬ Lissa swallowed, unsure how to respond. The fact that she had an audience made it harder. The best she could do was lower her voice so the others wouldn't hear. Ã¢â¬Å"ButÃ¢â¬ ¦ she loves you. She's worried about you. What happenedÃ¢â¬ ¦ with us being able to save you? Well, a lot of it was because of her.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You saved me.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I only did the final piece. The restÃ¢â¬ ¦ well, Rose did, um, a lot.Ã¢â¬ Say, like, organizing a prison break and releasing fugitives. Dimitri turned from Lissa, and the fire that had briefly lit his features faded. He walked over to the side of the cell and leaned against the wall. He closed his eyes for a few seconds, took a deep breath, and then opened them. Ã¢â¬Å"Anyone but her,Ã¢â¬ he repeated. Ã¢â¬Å"Not after what I did to her. I did a lot of thingsÃ¢â¬ ¦ horrible things.Ã¢â¬ He turned his hands palm-up and stared at them for a moment, like he could see blood. Ã¢â¬Å"What I did to her was worst of allÃ¢â¬âespecially because it was her. She came to save me from that state, and IÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ He shook his head. Ã¢â¬Å"I did terrible things to her. Terrible things to others. I can't face her after that. What I did was unforgivable.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It's not,Ã¢â¬ said Lissa urgently. Ã¢â¬Å"It wasn't you. Not really. She'll forgive you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No. There's no forgiveness for meÃ¢â¬ânot after what I did. I don't deserve her, don't deserve to even be around her. The only thing I can doÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ He walked back over to Lissa, and to the astonishment of both of us, he fell to his knees before her. Ã¢â¬Å"The only thing I can doÃ¢â¬âthe only redemption I can try forÃ¢â¬âis to pay you back for saving me.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Dimitri,Ã¢â¬ she began uneasily, Ã¢â¬Å"I told youÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"I felt that power. In that moment, I felt you bring my soul back. I felt you heal it. That's a debt I can't ever repay, but I swear I'll spend the rest of my life trying.Ã¢â¬ He was looking up at her, that enraptured look back on his face. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't want that. There's nothing to repay.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"There's everything to pay,Ã¢â¬ he argued. Ã¢â¬Å"I owe you my lifeÃ¢â¬âmy soul. It's the only way I can come close to ever redeeming myself for all the things I did. It's still not enoughÃ¢â¬ ¦ but it's all I can do.Ã¢â¬ He clasped his hands. Ã¢â¬Å"I swear, whatever you need, anythingÃ¢â¬âif it's in my powerÃ¢â¬âI'll do it. I'll serve and protect you for the rest of my life. I'll do whatever you ask. You have my loyalty forever.Ã¢â¬ Again, Lissa started to say she didn't want that, but then a canny thought came to mind. Ã¢â¬Å"Will you see Rose?Ã¢â¬ He grimaced. Ã¢â¬Å"Anything but that.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"DimitriÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Please. I'll do anything else for you, but if I see herÃ¢â¬ ¦ it'll hurt too much.Ã¢â¬ That was probably the only reason that could have made Lissa drop the subject. That and the desperate, dejected look on Dimitri's face. It was one she had never seen before, one I'd never seen before either. He'd always been so invincible in my eyes, and this sign of vulnerability didn't make him seem weaker to me. It simply made him more complex. It made me love him moreÃ¢â¬âand want to help him. Lissa could only give him a small nod as answer before one of the guardians in charge said she had to leave. Dimitri was still on his knees as they escorted her out, staring after her with an expression that said she was the closest to any hope he had left in this world. My heart twisted with both sorrow and jealousyÃ¢â¬âand a bit of anger too. I was the one he should have looked at that way. How dare he? How dare he act like Lissa was the greatest thing in the world? She'd done a lot to save him, true, but I was the one who'd traveled around the globe for him. I was the one who had continually risked my life for him. Most importantly, I was the one who loved him. How could he turn his back on that? Both Lissa and I were confused and upset as she left the building. Both of us were distraught over Dimitri's state. Despite how angry I was over his refusal to see me, I still felt horrible at seeing him so low. It killed me. He'd never acted that way before. After the Academy's attack, he had certainly been sad and had grieved over that loss. This was a different kind of despair. It was a deep sense of depression and guilt that he didn't feel he could escape from. Both Lissa and I were shocked by that. Dimitri had always been a man of action, someone ready to get up after a tragedy and fight the next battle. But this? This was unlike anything we'd ever seen in him, and Lissa and I had wildly varying ideas on how to solve it. Her gentler, sympathetic approach was to keep talking to him while also calmly persuading Court officials that Dimitri was no longer a threat. My solution to this problem was to go to Dimitri, no matter what he claimed he wanted. I'd busted in and out of a prison. Getting into a jail cell should be cake. I was still certain that once he saw me, he'd have a change of heart about all this redemption stuff. How could he truly think I wouldn't forgive him? I loved him. I understood. And as far as convincing officials that he wasn't dangerousÃ¢â¬ ¦ well, my method there was a little fuzzy still, but I had a feeling it would involve a lot of yelling and beating on doors. Lissa knew perfectly well that I had observed her encounter with Dimitri, so she didn't feel obligated to come see me, not when she knew they could still use her over at the medical center. She'd heard Adrian had nearly collapsed with all the magic he'd wielded to help others. It seemed so uncharacteristic of him, so unselfishÃ¢â¬ ¦ he'd done amazing deeds, at great cost to himself. Adrian. There was a problem. I hadn't had a chance to see him since getting back after the warehouse fight. And aside from hearing about him healing others, I really hadn't thought about him at all. I'd said that if Dimitri really could be saved, it didn't mean the end of Adrian and me. Yet, Dimitri had barely been back twenty-four hours, and here I was, already obsessing ovÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Lissa?Ã¢â¬ Despite the fact that I'd pulled back to my own mind, part of me was still absentmindedly following along with Lissa. Christian was standing outside the medical center, leaning against its wall. From his posture, it appeared as though he'd been there for a while waiting for somethingÃ¢â¬âor rather, someone. She came to a halt, and inexplicably, all thoughts of Dimitri vanished from her mind. Oh, come on. I wanted those two to patch things up, but we had no time for this. Dimitri's fate was a lot more important than bantering with Christian. Christian didn't look like he was in a snarky mood, though. His expression was curious and concerned as he regarded her. Ã¢â¬Å"How are you feeling?Ã¢â¬ he asked. They hadn't talked to each other since the ride back, and she'd been largely incoherent during a lot of it. Ã¢â¬Å"Fine.Ã¢â¬ She touched her face absentmindedly. Ã¢â¬Å"Adrian healed me.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I guess he is good for something.Ã¢â¬ Okay, maybe Christian was feeling a little snarky today. But only a little. Ã¢â¬Å"Adrian's good for lots of things,Ã¢â¬ she said, though she couldn't help a small smile. Ã¢â¬Å"He ran himself into the ground here all night.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What about you? I know how you are. As soon as you were up and around, you were probably right there beside him.Ã¢â¬ She shook her head. Ã¢â¬Å"No. After he healed me, I went to see Dimitri.Ã¢â¬ All mirth disappeared from Christian's face. Ã¢â¬Å"You've talked to him?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Twice now. But yeah. I have.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And what?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What's he like?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He's like Dimitri.Ã¢â¬ She suddenly frowned, reconsidering her words. Ã¢â¬Å"WellÃ¢â¬ ¦ not quite like Dimitri.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What, does he still have some Strigoi in him?Ã¢â¬ Christian straightened up, blue eyes flashing. Ã¢â¬Å"If he's still dangerous, you have no business going nearÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"No!Ã¢â¬ she exclaimed. Ã¢â¬Å"He's not dangerous. AndÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ She took a few steps forward, returning his glare. Ã¢â¬Å"Even if he was, you have no business telling me what I can or can't do!Ã¢â¬ Christian sighed dramatically. Ã¢â¬Å"And here I thought Rose was the only one who threw herself into stupid situations, regardless of whether they might kill her.Ã¢â¬ Lissa's anger flared up rapidly, likely because of all the spirit she'd been using. Ã¢â¬Å"Hey, you didn't have any issues helping me stake Dimitri! You trained me for it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"That was different. We were in a bad situation already, and if things went wrongÃ¢â¬ ¦ well, I could have incinerated him.Ã¢â¬ Christian regarded her from head to toe, and there was something in his gazeÃ¢â¬ ¦ something that seemed like more than just objective assessment. Ã¢â¬Å"But I didn't have to. You were amazing. You made the hit. I didn't know if you could, but you didÃ¢â¬ ¦ and the fireÃ¢â¬ ¦ You didn't flinch at all, but it must have been awfulÃ¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ There was a catch in his voice as he spoke, like he was only now truly assessing the consequences of what might have happened to Lissa. His concern and admiration made her flush, and she tilted her headÃ¢â¬âan old trickÃ¢â¬âso that the pieces of hair that had escaped from her ponytail would fall forward and hide her face. There was no need for it. Christian was now staring pointedly at the ground. Ã¢â¬Å"I had to do it,Ã¢â¬ she said at last. Ã¢â¬Å"I had to see if it was possible.Ã¢â¬ He looked up. Ã¢â¬Å"And it wasÃ¢â¬ ¦ right? There really isn't any trace of Strigoi?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"None. I'm positive. But no one believes it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Can you blame them? I mean, I helped out with it and I wanted it to be trueÃ¢â¬ ¦ but I'm not sure I ever really, truly thought someone could come back from that.Ã¢â¬ He glanced away again, his gaze resting on a lilac bush. Lissa could smell its scent, but the distant and troubled look on his face told her that his thoughts weren't on nature. Neither were they on Dimitri, I realized. He was thinking about his parents. What if there'd been spirit users around when the Ozeras had turned Strigoi? What if there had been a way to save them? Lissa, not guessing what I had, remarked, Ã¢â¬Å"I don't even know that I believed either. But as soon as it happened, wellÃ¢â¬ ¦ I knew. I know. There's no Strigoi in him. I have to help him. I have to make others realize it. I can't let them lock him up foreverÃ¢â¬âor worse.Ã¢â¬ Getting Dimitri out of the warehouse without the other guardians staking him had been no easy feat for her, and she shivered recalling those first few seconds after his change when everyone had been shouting to kill him. Christian turned back and met her eyes curiously. Ã¢â¬Å"What did you mean when you said he was like Dimitri but not like Dimitri?Ã¢â¬ Her voice trembled a little when she spoke. Ã¢â¬Å"He'sÃ¢â¬ ¦ sad.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Sad? Seems like he should be happy he was saved.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"NoÃ¢â¬ ¦ you don't understand. He feels awful about everything he did as a Strigoi. Guilty, depressed. He's punishing himself for it because he doesn't think he can be forgiven.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Holy shit,Ã¢â¬ said Christian, clearly caught off guard. A few Moroi girls had walked by just then and looked scandalized at his swearing. They hurried off, whispering among themselves. Christian ignored them. Ã¢â¬Å"But he couldn't help itÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"I know, I know. I already went over it with him.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Can Rose help?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No,Ã¢â¬ Lissa said bluntly. Christian waited, apparently hoping she'd elaborate. He grew annoyed when she didn't. Ã¢â¬Å"What do you mean she can't? She should be able to help us more than anyone!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I don't want to get into it.Ã¢â¬ My situation with Dimitri bothered her a lot. That made two of us. Lissa turned toward the medical building. It looked regal and castle-like on the outside, but it housed a facility as sterile and modern as any hospital. Ã¢â¬Å"Look, I need to get inside. And don't look at me like that.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Like what?Ã¢â¬ he demanded, taking a few steps toward her. Ã¢â¬Å"That disapproving, pissed-off look you get when you don't get your way.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I don't have that look!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You have it right now.Ã¢â¬ She backed away from him, moving toward the center's door. Ã¢â¬Å"If you want the whole story, we can talk later, but I don't have the timeÃ¢â¬ ¦ and honestlyÃ¢â¬ ¦ I don't really feel like telling it.Ã¢â¬ That pissed-off lookÃ¢â¬âand she was right, he did have itÃ¢â¬âfaded a little. Almost nervously, he said, Ã¢â¬Å"Okay. Later then. And LissaÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Hmm?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'm glad you're all right. What you did last nightÃ¢â¬ ¦ well, it really was amazing.Ã¢â¬ Lissa stared at him for several heavy seconds, her heart rate rising slightly as she watched a light breeze ruffle his black hair. Ã¢â¬Å"I couldn't have done it without your help,Ã¢â¬ she said at last. With that, she turned and went inside, and I returned completely to my own head. And like earlier, I was at a loss. Lissa would be busy the rest of the day, and standing and yelling in the guardians' office wouldn't really help me get to Dimitri. Well, I supposed there was the off chance I might annoy them so much that they'd throw me in jail too. Then Dimitri and I would be next to each other. I promptly dismissed that plan, fearing the only thing it would land me with was more filing. What could I do? Nothing. I needed to see him again but didn't know how. I hated not having a plan. Lissa's encounter with Dimitri hadn't been nearly long enough for me, and anyway, I felt it was important to take him in through my eyes, not hers. And oh, that sadnessÃ¢â¬ ¦ that utter look of hopelessness. I couldn't stand it. I wanted to hold him, to tell him everything would be okay. I wanted to tell him I forgave him and that we'd make everything like it used to be. We could be together, just the way we plannedÃ¢â¬ ¦ The thought brought tears to my eyes, and left alone with my frustration and inactivity, I returned to my room and flounced onto the bed. Alone, I could finally let loose the sobs I'd been holding in since last night. I didn't even entirely know what I was crying for. The trauma and blood of the last day. My own broken heart. Dimitri's sorrow. The cruel circumstances that had ruined our lives. Really, there were a lot of choices. I stayed in my room for a good part of the day, lost in my own grief and restlessness. Over and over, I replayed Lissa's meeting with Dimitri, what he'd said and how he looked. I lost track of time, and it took a knock at the door to snap me out of my own suffocating emotions. Hastily rubbing an arm over my eyes, I opened the door to find Adrian standing out there. Ã¢â¬Å"Hey,Ã¢â¬ I said, a little surprised by his presenceÃ¢â¬ânot to mention guilty, considering I'd been moping over another guy. I wasn't ready to face Adrian yet, but it appeared I had no choice now. Ã¢â¬Å"Do youÃ¢â¬ ¦ do you want to come in?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Wish I could, little dhampir.Ã¢â¬ He seemed to be in a hurry, not like he'd come to have a relationship talk. Ã¢â¬Å"But this is just a drop-by visit to issue an invitation.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Invitation?Ã¢â¬ I asked. My mind was still on Dimitri. Dimitri, Dimitri, Dimitri. Ã¢â¬Å"An invitation to a party.Ã¢â¬