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Bipolar disorder Essay example -- essays research papers fc
The Bipolar Child Ã¢â¬â A New Emergence Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The bipolar child is a relatively neglected childhood diagnosis that is the subject of great controversy in the fields of clinical and child psychiatry and psychology. Diagnosis and treatment of such a devastating disorder is very difficult due to several different factors, including, Childhood-onset Bipolar Disorder (COBPD) does not have its own criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), published by the American Psychiatric Association, Washington D.C., 1994, the main diagnostic reference of Mental Health professionals in the United States of America, a child shares the same criteria standards as an adult, plus there are several similarities in COBPD and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), causing some misdiagnosis, and the simple fact that there is little reference to the disorder in a medical and psychiatric field afraid to step into the world of childhood mood disorders.(Papolos NARSAD 2003, P opper 1989, NIMH 2000) Only until recently has more research and development been conducted on COPBD. According to the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria, a person must have at least five of the following symptoms during the same two week period to qualify as a major depressive episode: a depressed mood lasting most of the day for several days, a significant weight gain or weight loss, a loss of interest in activities, difficulty sleeping or an increased need for sleep, restlessness or slowed pace observable by others, daily fatigue, feelings of guilt or worthlessness, inability to concentrate, or recurrent thoughts of death. For a mixed episode, a person must display symptoms of depression and mania every day during at least a one-week period. A manic episode is described as elevated or abnormally irritable for at least one week, with a least three of the following: personal greatness, decreased need for sleep, extreme talkativeness, Ã¢â¬Å"racingÃ¢â¬ thoughts, distractibility or hypersexuality (excessive sexual activity, or sexual desire). The DSM-IV states that these symptoms must inte rfere with daily functioning and not be a result of the effects of drugs, medical condition, or temporary results from a traumatic event for all of these; depression, mixed state, and mania. The Child and Adolescent Bipolar Foundation lists four types of mood disor... ..., Anita Ph.D. About Bipolar Disorder (Manic Depression Illness). Kluger, Jeffrey and Song, Sora. Young and Bipolar Time.com. Time archive. August 19,2002. Letters Time.com. Time Archive. September 9,2002 Moyer, Paula. ADHD Kids May Have Bipolar Disorder, Too -Treating ADHD Alone May Worsen Bipolar Symptoms. WebMD Medical News. Oct. 29,2002. Papolos, Demitri F. M.D. Childhood-onset Bipolar Disorder: Under-diagnosed, Under-treated and Under Discussion, NARSAD Research. 2003. Papolos, Dimitri F. M.D. and Papolos, Janice. The Irrepressible Agenda of Children With Bipolar Disorder. The Bipolar Child Newsletter. October 2002. Vol.12. Popper, Charles M.D. Diagnosing Bipolar vs. ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Summer, 1989. Helping Children with Early-Onset Bipolar To Learn Ã¢â¬Å"A Guide for Teachers and AdministratorsÃ¢â¬ prepared by Parents of Children with Early-Onset Bipolar The BPParent Listserv. Owner/Founder S.M. Tomie Burke Weller EB, Weller RA, Fristad MA. Bipolar diagnosis in children: misdiagnosis, under diagnosis, and future directions. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 1995; 34(6); 709-714.